Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific|
This page contains Japanese characters.
In the end of Edo era, some revolutionary samurai of Japan recognized international law (kokusai hou or bankoku kouhou) earlier than China understood. Powers used it for diplomatic relations to tie a treaty with other powers. So Meiji Government introduced a concept of public law to Charter Oath in 1868.
the Ansei Five-Power Treaties
Japanese people had done festivals of farming rice for a long times. The most important festivals are in spring and fall. Commons enjoyed seeing children playing the gyms in a field of an elementary school in spring and fall. Parents rested farming whole a day. Every school all over Japan showed chained flags called bankoku-ki(literally 10 thousand nations flags) in the mid of Meiji era. Expo was translated into bankoku hakurankai.
Once a smart bureaucrat translated 'League of Nations' into 'Kokusai (International) Renmei (League).' Japanese people like the word, Kokusai. Some universities have a faculty of Kokusai. I do not know what to study at the faculty. At last a princess have entered ICU (International Christian University) for the first time, though princes and princesses entered Gakushuin usually. Boy students of Gakushuin wear a traditional IJN officer style uniform even now, as Mikado Akihito wore it when childhood. Gakushuin was not for commons but Peers School before the Pacific War.
Powers admitted Japan as one of powers after the Japanese-Russo War. But all the 5 nations above the picture became the enemy of Japan in the Pacific War, though Japan had not been able to withdraw the troops in China. How leaders of Japan thought cease fire against US and UK, when Government broke up the war? Government declared the Pacific War (Dai Toua Sensou) without referring to international law, while leaders of Meiji declared the Japanese-Qing War and the Japanese-Russo War under international law.
[1st Aug 1894, Japanese-Qing War]
Oyoso Kokusai jyouki(international rule) no hani ni oite issai no syudan wo tukusi, Isan nakaramu koto wo kiseyo.
International rescue (Kokusai kyujyo-tai)
Jiei-tai iraku haken
After the Pacific War, Japanese people also liked a word, culture 'bunka'. Now is another word, global 'guroubaru'. An British ambassador wrote an opinion on Mainichi Newspaper in 2008. He suggested to 'international' 5 times and 'global' twice.
US asked Government how to treat POW via Switzland on 27 December 1941 as well as UK via Argentina on 3 January 1942. Government replied Switzland and Argentia "mutatis mutandis". Japan and US agreed how to treat civilians in the Pacific War in February. A Japanese official executed a representive of ICRC in Borneo on 13 May 1943.
After the Pacific War, Japan ratified Fourth Geneva Convention (1949) on 21 October 1953. Japan ratified addtitional Protocol I relating to the Protection of victims of international armed conflicts and Protocol II relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts on 28 February 2005.
|The rising powers in the Pacific|
After WWI, Japan and US became ones of powers. They were admitted civilized nation state in Paris in 1919. The powers were UK, France, Italy, US and Japan. Japan and US had increased the population after WWI. The both new emerged nations had competitive sentiment each other, though Japanese actual power was far poor than US. At first US Homer Lea wrote 'The Valor of Ignorance' in 1909. While Mizuno wrote 'The next war' in 1914. The later fiction depicted that Japan won in the Philippines at first battles and Japan lost the war in the mid Pacific at the big fleet battle.'|
Russia began expanding in Manchuria. So Japan proposed Russia that Russia would approve of Japanese supeority in Korea and Japan would approve of Russian supeority in Manchuria, but Russia refused. US and Japan tied an additonal commerce treaty with Qing at the same time on 8 October 1903. US and Japan had their markets in Mukden. Russia occupied Mukden on 28 October 1903.(1) After the Japanese-Russo War, Japan and US approved rights supeority of Japan in Korea and of US in Philippines each other under Katsura-Taft Agreement in 1905.
Japan got tariff autonomy and could tie equal treaty with US on 21 February 1911 at last. It took 52 years to revise. Japan knew that military power was the most important to be independent from foreign powers. US actioned as well as ancient arrogant democratic super power of Athen did, I think.
As for Chinese debt issue, UK, US and Japan could not agree with 北京関税会議 in 1925-1926. UK approved of 2.5% of tariff of import in China in December 1926. US expressed negotiation with China in January 1927. And Canton Government expressed void of unequal treaties with powers in July 1928. US approved of Canton Government and the tariff autonomy in July. UK did in August. Tanaka Cabinet did not approve of tariff autonomy but 2.5% tariff on 30 January 1929.(2) Tanaka Cabinet approved of Canton Government on 3 June 1929.(4) Hamaguchi Cabinet decided of Chinese tariff autonomy in January 1930 and signed Chinese tariff autonomy on 6 May.(3)
Japan occupied German Saipan and Truk in WWI. While Australia occupied New Guniea. Saipan is located in the neighbor of Guam. I think Japan had not occupy most of German territories in the Pacific after all. US built the Panama Canal in 1914. Twenty-One Demands of Japan ocurred Chinese nationalism in 1915. Japan was one of powers. USN began to study campaign plans in the Pacific how USN would occupy islands and protect invasion forces. While IJN began to study how to intercept USN near Saipan. But oil fueling in the ocean and aircraft changed real naval operaions in 1940s. IJN aircraft raided Parl Harbor while military aircraft on a USN carrier attacked Tokyo.
Japan, US and UK agreed the status quo in the Pacific on 6 February 1922. There were strange limit about fortifications. US succeeded in excluding Hawaii where US annexed in 1898. While Japan annexed Taiwan in 1895, Okinawa in 1872. I do not know why Japanese people did not refer to this article. Didn't the Japanese remember how black ships invaded Japan via Taiwan, Okinawa and Ogasawara (Bonin) in 1850s? Did they think old shiodome line was enough to defend Japan? Shiodome was Bakufu's imaginary defense line at the Uraga Channel in Edo era. Once again Japan stood and stands in the pheripherial of the Pacific.
The United States, the British Empire and Japan agree that the status quo at the time of the signing of the present Treaty, with
(1) The insular possessions which the United States now holds or may hereafter acquire in the Pacific Ocean, except (a) those adjacent to the coast of the United States, Alaska and the Panama Canal Zone, not including the Aleutian Islands, and (b) the Hawaiian Islands;
(2) Hong Kong and the insular possessions which the British Empire now holds or may hereafter acquire in the Pacific Ocean, east of the meridian of 110° east longitude, except (a) those adjacent to the coast of Canada, (b) the Commonwealth of Australia and its Territories, and (c) New Zealand;
(3) The following insular territories and possessions of Japan in the Pacific Ocean, to wit: the Kurile Islands, the Bonin Islands, Amami-Oshima, the Loochoo Islands, Formosa and the Pescadores, and any insular territories or possessions in the Pacific Ocean which Japan may hereafter acquire.
The maintenance of the status quo under the foregoing provisions implies that no new fortifications or naval bases shall be established in the territories and possessions specified; that no measures shall be taken to increase the existing naval facilities for the repair and maintenance of naval forces, and that no increase shall be made in the coast defences of the territories and possessions above specified. This restriction, however, does not preclude such repair and replacement of worn-out weapons and equipment as is customary in naval and military establishments in time of peace.
1910 Jul04 2nd Japanese-Russo Agreement
1912 Jul08 3rd Japanese-Russo Agreement
1916 Jul03 4th Japanese-Russo Agreement
|Military advisors of Chiang Kai-shek|
China was disappointed that other powers fixed colonization of China. So China came near to Russia (Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact) at first. The next was Germany (Sino-German cooperation). China had invited Russian military advisors before 1927. China expelled communists in 1927. The table shows Russian, German, American and Japanese military advisors of Chiang Kai-shek. China had adopted foreigners to control foreigners ( 夷 wo motte 夷 wo seisuru ) in her long history. Okamura recommended Tomita to Chiang. Okamura also was a military advisor of 北洋軍閥 孫伝芳.
Chiang published his declare of 最後関頭 at 廬山 on 17 July 1937.
Why did Konoe announce such a declaration to China on 15 August 1937, even though he recognized China issue and domestic militarism correct?
|Modern Navy foundation in the end of Edo era|
Abe Masahiro had provacated that Japan did not guard by guns on coast against hostile warships but should intercept them off shore. So Government stopped prohibition of big ships. But a few han (local government) only wished to build warships. Government requested Curtius of Netherlands to submit a proposal for Japanese navy. Fabius, commander of Soembing (Kanko-maru) submitted his opinion 3 times. Government founded kaigun denshu-sho in Nagasaki and bought warships from Netherlands. Government had 4 steam warships including a gift from UK till 1859. Kaigun denshu-sho trained samurai from various han. Soon Government thought Japan had better adopt USN method and bought warships from US. Government was to send students in US to learn modern naval technologies. But the Civil War in US prevented it. It is interesting for me that Bakufu called kaigun denshu (伝習) sho (所), because Bakufu also a Western style infantry denshu (伝習) tai (隊).|
Gunzo, p162-169, no70
|Sea Power Parity on Washington Treaty|
Dependent on US economy
There were few military leaders to know US economy or society well. Leaders from Cadet school or Naval academy governed our nation in 1930 - 1945. Most of Japanese leaders thought world wide issues like Ishihara, Tojyo and Kishi. They longered Japan could develop by herself like Soviet Union under controlled economy. Soviet had resources and land to grow food.
Correctly Gandhi understood dollars cool in Asia, who knew that Japan could not be independent from US.
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