Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific|
My mother told me her memory that a B-29 flew over her home land, Hokkaido in summer 1945. It tailed a stream. Old Japanese pople remember B29 all over Japan. Newspapers wrote disasters of two nukes in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at once, though war press anouncement was not true at all. The US had to keep bombing by B-29s because they were productioned by a lot of US people's tax. FDR would be in trouble, if Japan surrendered at once after German surrender. Japanese leaders also wanted to continue the desperate war.
Source 1 : Super fortress B-29|
US Army decided to pay $85,652 for preapring a trial on 14 June 1940. USAAF decided to pay $3,600,000 for 2 trials on 29 August 1940. After checking a mockup, USAAF ordered 14 YB-29 and 250 B-29 on 19 May 1941. The first roll out was on 15 April 1943.
XB-29 made first flight on 21 September 1942. It had 22 fuel tanks with wing. Ratio of weight to wing area was 10 times of light plane cub. Boeing began a test flight of YB-29 on 26 June 1943.
Source 2 : B-29, p11-14
1941Sep06 order 250 B-29 $3,000,000,000 AC19673-1
1942Jan13 order 500 B-29 $5,300,000,000 AC19673-2
1942Sep19 total order 1,644 B-29
1944Mar-- production 100/month
1944Jul-- production 4/day
1946Jun10 last roll-out of 3,955th B-29
|F-13 for photo reconnaissance|
Boeing B-29, p33
21st AF used a F-13 to take photos over Tokyo on Oct 13th 1944. LeMay writes that Japan will not intercept a single super fortress to keep forces against large scale raids. The F-13 took several thousand photos for 35 minutes over Tokyo. The F-13 was called Tokyo Rose.
The Tokyo Rose invaded Tokyo at 9,800m altitude on a very clear day, Nov 1st 1944. Its height reached at 11,000m returning course.
The nose art of Tokyo Rose was a woman of hair style like an onion who sweeps floor with a mop. She was not attractive like other painted women in B-29s. By the way I can imagine that a lot of people saw the exhausted stream. My mother told me that she saw streams of B-29 in summer in Hokkaido.
As matter of fact, Japan misjudged invading more than 3 aircraft from information on Nov 1st 1944. So Dinahs intercepted at full length. Tonys and Nicks of 18th, 144th, 53rd sentai did. Kitagawa says, 'I flew 11,400m high, but B-29 was flying over the altitude.'
11:00 IJA Ogasawara post sighted a lot of B-29s
11:05 IJN patrol boat sighted them
11:10 IJA 15th SQ and 70th Sentai actioned
11:30 IJA Full length action (53rd, 47th, 244th, 23rd, 70th etc)
11:58 IJN Alert over Yokosuka
Only P-51 invaded on 19 April. Only P-51 flew 730 sorties for 9 times from 26 April to 13 June. They loaded a drop fuel tank of 625L. 26 P-51s were lost. P-51s raided trains. The table shows a few cases.
|Kawasaki Aircraft was destroyed|
21BC raided Kagagimihara where Kawasaki Aircraft and Mitsubishi were located at in June 1945. 34 B-29s destroyed Kawasaki Aircraft on 22 June 1945 by 1t bombs for 30 minutes. On 25th, 85 B-29s destroyed Kawasaki by 250 kg bombs completely for an hour and half. They released bombs at daytime from medium altitude. Kawasaki was a maker of Ki-45 kai and Ki-102 which are for night fighters. Kawasaki also made reliable fighter Ki-100.
Escalation of tactics
Superfortress B-29, p278
USN carriers aircraft burned engine assembly of the factory on 17th Feb 1945, though B-29 had tried 6 times already. While COA recommended targets of bombardment,
Fire bombs cities bombardment
Mine release siege
Japan tried to attack B-29s in airfields of Mariana 5 times.
IJA and IJN aircraft destroyed 24 B-29s and damaged 43 on Xmas.
Although daily precision bombardment did not have much effect, Night raid of B-29s was very effective to destroy civilian life of Japan, because they could carry bombs heavier than usual. The civilians had always had to sleep wearing usual working clothes for fear of night raids. The table compares 2 ways of bombing. 6 big cities of Tokyo, Nagoya, Kobe, Osaka and Yokohama were burned by B-29 till 15 Jun 1945. Japanese students in cities knew Japanese military propaganda by their teachers, newspapers and radio. Government decided to labor students for a year on 18 March 1945. All the students in Japan began laboring for food and military production on April 1945.
Announced bombardment result
Toyama is on the coast of the Japan Sea. Hachiouji is the west of Tokyo. Mito is the north east of Tokyo and an IJA air base. Although the population of Mito was small, Mito seemed a depo of the coast positions.
Toyama : 2,700 killed, 8,000 wounded
Hachiouji : 500 killed, 2,000 wounded
Mito : 300 killed, 1,293 wounded
IJAAF stopped aircraft being in the end of Jun 1945. IJAAF decided to intercept B-29s at night. All the 10th, 11th, and 12th AW of working fighters were 250. Other sentai were, 30th FG(47th, 244th, 51st, 52nd sentai)
1st AF(1st, 11th sentai)
6h AF(101st, 103rd sentai)
20th FG(111th, 112th sentai)
IJAAF had working about 450 fighters on July. the 1/3 of them seemed to be able to attack B-29s at night. But radars were preparing in local cities. Search lights were short. AI radars had not been practical yet. A night fighter could not counter single engine fighter naturally. So Japanese night fighters had to escape attacks of more than 100 P-51s from Iwojima almost everyday, and 300 to 1500 aircraft of USN attacked airfields at daytime. And worse telephones were not available among head quaters of air wings. I think it important the telephone network was incredibally poor in 1940s. Chihaya, an IJN officer had to wait 2 or 3 hours to call Tokyo office of IJN from Nagasaki office by phone in 1941. I think phone is a fatal bottle neck of IJN and IJA. After the Pacific War, GHQ was surprised at low quality of Japanese phone network. GHQ had to work to improve the network by themselves. Japanese phone network was poor because of simple electric part defects which were ceramic capacitors in amplifiers.
If search lights were enough in big cities, pair of a radar and a search light could track a B-29 like UK method, though direction radars could not detect the flying height. For example, a pair of 2 IJA aircraft of 53rd sentai flew over Maebashi at 8pm with an radar information from Hachijyojima at 6pm. With a few search light, Nakagaki and Iimura pilot could not catch up a B-29. They returned Fujigaya at a loss for 20 minutes patrol. It was diffcult for them to fly 100km Maebashi and return at night. If IJA have well trained 2-seated night fighter like old Ki-45 with PPI radar enough, IJA could have shoot down a few of B-29s. And B-29s had to be equipped with machine guns againt IJA night fighters.
After all, Sei-go operation did not action. IJA explained aircraft being for Ketsu-go operation. Simply IJA could not intercept B-29s at night at all. Fukuyma burned 2 folds of efficiency compared with Mito. How easily did Fukuyama burn?
|IJA and IJN cooperative attack at Saipan airfield on Xmas|
7th sentai of IJA was under command of IJN temporally. IJN planned to attack B-29s airfields of Saipan on Xmas 1944. Some Ki-67 fixed up a tank of 1kl of fuel. The 7th sentai and 762nd koukutai advanced to Iwojima on 25 Dec.
3 Ki-67 loaded 20 bombs of 30kg and 5 Frances took off alone about 5pm. Okada's ki-67 reached over Saipan at 7,900m high at 9:05pm. Okada saw waves around Saipan under the sky of the brightening moon. An arrived company had already released. Flak was correct. Okada dived 500km/h speed at 25 deg. Nishiki seated behind him saw passing through 2 night fighters at the right wing below. Okada's plane released bombs and his tail gunner saw burning fire on a runway. Okada listend to the last telegram of other k-67 attacked by a night fighter. He ran away zigzag at full speed. So he was anxious about present position because of disorder of receiver. Okada's plane could not receive guiding wave from Iwojima. But Navigator Aoki from IJN guessed correct and Okada flew Iwojima lightening the sky back. Getting on land, Nishiki saw a big hole of 30cm diameter in the bomb bay.|
|B-29s burned all most of stragitic targets or cities till July 1945. USAAF judged it 50% of burened area. USAAF had 3,692 B-17 and 4,986 B-24 then. The 8th AF HQ moved from Belguim to Okinawa on 16th Jul. US Joint board approved Olympic operation on 25th May. 20AF was equipped with 1,056 B-29. I suppose Olympic operation would occur bigger disaster than Okinawa. Ironically Russian Blitz invasion in Manchuria erased possibillity to have damage in Kyushu.|
|Airborne leaflet propaganda|
Local cities to be air bombered by B-29|
20th USAAF began to release leaflets on 28 July 1945. Lemay wrote that B-29s released some kinds of leaflet suggesting to flee from fire bombs after the big Tokyo raid on 5 March 1945.
On air, US had released other leaflets to propagate VOA from Saipan using middle wave on 23rd Apr 1945.
|Nuke bombardment and NPT|
B-29 could load a nuke and fly to destroy a city and kill more than 100 thousand civilians at once. Only two nuke bombers destoryed Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August 1945. The nukes proved of the most excellent weapon in the world history. The allied powers decided that they should have nukes by powers and other nations should not have them for themselves. Although Prime Minister Sato singed NPT on 3 February 1970, Government hesitated to ratify because Japanese rulers remembered that US did not bombardment a nuke at Manchuria in Korean War at all. Prime Minister Miki ratified on 8 June 1976 at last. Japanese rulers decided that Japan should live under imaginable US nuke power. Some Japanese people think US might use a nuke against Japan again in future, though US will never use it against China. This is why Japan have to be good relation with China. We know that US never wared against strong powers than herself except Independence War. US always have used arms against inferior nations than herself like traditional Chinese dynasties did.
But Nam War troubled US like a few northern nations and Japan troubled old China. Japan invaded China like traditional barbarians and pirates from the north and the sea in 20th century. I find peak-out of US power at the Nam War judging from ASEAN's diplomatic policy. Small nations always have watched powers.
Commons of big cities stopped shields of light at home and could sleep well on 15 August 1945, because cease fire stopped B-29s night raids. B-29s did 33,000 sorties and 450 B-29s were lost. The lost ratio was 1.3 % only. Otherwise IJN lost 1,000 air crews per month against USN in Kyushu and Okinawa during Kikusui Operation.
435 B-29s displayed air power over the Tokyo Bay, when Japan surrendered on 2 September 1945. Soon US and Russia were competitve with nukes each other. US also had to fight new wars against China in Korea and Nam twice, as Japan worried about China in Korea and Manchuria before.
|Other 4-engined heavy bomber|
IJN was afraid of heavy bombers of B-17 or B-24. IJN could not allow that the heavy bombers reckon ports and patrol the sea.
USN converted 65 Liberators for photo duty and established four squadrons — VD-1 (January 1943), VD-3 (February 1943), VD-4 (August 1943) and VD-5 (July 1944). I think USN needed reconnaissance to plan invasion and a lot of maps for amphibious operation. I understood how often USN did photo-reconnaissance missions for Iceberg Operation in Okinawa. USN organized three squadrons and prepared invasion in 1943. While IJN built air bases in the Marshall Islands.
B-17s were diffcult to shoot down. Zero almost shot enemies by 20mm guns except for B-17. The shells could not penetrate armor behind B-17 cockpit. While Betty was fragile for enemy fighters' 13mm shells. Crews of Betty called the aircraft type 1 lighter. By the way, Betty was not installed armor plates till 1943.
USN planned B-17 as AEW operation. The designation was PB-1W.
|Award to militian|
Ikeda succeeded to the cabinet of Yoshida. Ikeda Cabinet awarded LeMay ( 勲一等旭日大勲章 ) on 4 December 1964. LeMay commanded 21st BC which bombarded over Japan since 20 January 1945. He flew from ( 混明 ) to Guam on 7 January.|
Watanabe wrote that Japanese governers always favored in US and had no concern with national sentiment except his election voters. I think Japan is the same as Philippines. Governers of Philippines awarded US army commanders who killed and punished revolted people. Recently my family watched on DVD of the Addams Family. My son understood the irony of relationship between native Americans and white pioneers or invaders. A white girl wanted to civilize a native American girl in a short drama. Revolted children had to watch on video of Disney. I remembered collecting seals of Disney's charcters in chocolate package when a boy. Our generation absorbed in American pop culture. While Chinese goverment banned abroad animation for kids on 1 September 2006. Chinese kids cannot watch Crayon Shin-chan any more on TV program.
The Kanto army held a press meeting in Harbin Secret Military Agency on Aug 11. Asaoka showed a recorded film used a new weapon in China. The screen showed a Ki-48 loading something like a milk pan and 15 or 20 small ones. The bomber took off. And The screen showed a field. The bomber released white vessels. It returned, some medics sprayed inner of the bomber. Asaoka said,'This film was made by an epidemic prevention department in Harbin. We made a trial of bio weapon in the middle of China.
 Tokyo shijyo no kaitaku to eigyo-sho kaisetsu
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