1. Military bureaucrats
Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific
This page contains Japanese characters.
 IJA and IJN were independent from Government
Prime minister Tojo did not have control over IJN. Operations of IJA and IJN were independent from Government except for their military budget. IJN made desperate operations at Leyte and Okinawa. The purpose of the Pacific War was self-existence and self-defense of Japan at the break. But the mission of the Pacific War was Kokutai goji ( Mikado's system ) to keep privilege of military ministries and organizations in the end. IJN ordered suicide attacks in Phillipens for a month. IJN did suicide missions in Okinawa for five months eager than IJA. But Hirohito was unwilling that IJN did not cooperating with IJA in Leyte and Okinawa. He told Yonai, "It is not good to appoint Toyoda as CNO, because his command was not good at Mariana Operation."[28] But Toyoda was appointed.
    真珠湾出撃の時はあれほど厳密な電波管制を敷いた日本艦隊が,なぜミッドウェイの前にはやたらに通信を取り交わして,艦隊の動きを謀知されるようなへまをやったか。山本五十六は6ヶ月の間にばかになってしまったのか。答えは否定的なのである。戦勝におごった軍事組織の全体をひきしめることは,連合艦隊司令官個人の能力を越えていたのである。
    海軍は昭和19年には,日米戦力の比が10対1になることを,確実に知っていたといってよいくらいに予測していた。それなのに開戦に対して「否」といえなかった。いまさら軍備が不十分だ,とは天皇と国民のいえなかったからだといわれる。しかし軍令部総長の自尊心と気の弱さにだけ帰することは出来ない。日本海軍全体がそういう合理的な動きが出来ないほど老朽化していたのである。 Silent Navy の沈黙の内側は空虚だったのだ。
Ouoka wrote that Japan failed because IJN could not think reasonable for aging, and military organization cannot keep discipline when it wins.[29] Otherwise how USN did keep reasonable and discipline themselves longer time than IJN? I think sailors' ability or potential were not different from IJN and USN, and IJN admirals were spoiled as bureaucrats for Mikado. IJA soldiers in the Pacific, merchant ship crews had to sacrifice themselves for IJN bureaucrats' pride and dogma.

 Bureaucrats called Japan Koukoku (皇国)
Leaders of Meiji tried modernize Japan against Wstern powers for fearing colization. They established IJA and IJN to defend her country at first. After Yamagata Aritomo died in 1922, he was one of them, bureaucrats stgrethend to govern Japan. Bureaucrats decided important policy while the world was changing after WWI. US Immigration Act of 1924 occurred bad sentiment to US among Japanese people. Russia withdrew her troop from Manchuria in 1929. Some bureaucrats began to think a good chance to enlarge special rights in Manchuria. Jinmam Incident got worse Japanese sentiment to China in 1928. Congressman Inugai and Hatoyama condemned 統帥権干犯 in 1930, when Hamaguchi Cabinet tied London Naval treaty in April 1930. Matsuoka made a speech, "Manchuria and Mongol is the life line of Japanese people" in the Diet in January 1931. IJA bureaucrats occurred Manchuria Incident in September 1931. Okada Cabinet declared 国体明徴 in 1935. 国体明徴 meant that military power was independent from Government. Jpanese men were to be governed by either Government or IJA and IJN. Mikado began wearing Japanese style sword for western sabre in 1930s.

Konoe and Tojo Cabinet missed US and Chinese people's power. Japanese bureaucrats decided Kihon Kokusaku Youkou[5] on 26 July 1940. The Kihon Kokusaku Youkou called her country as Koukoku (皇国) for Teikoku (empire). Koukoku meant country of Mikado. Government and IJA & IJN decided to open war against the US on 6 September 1941. Mikdao attended the most important meeting, Imperial Conference since 1938. Nagano, IJN CNO made a speech at war,
    戦わざれば亡国と政府は判断された。戦うもまた亡国であるかも知れぬ。戦わざる亡国は魂まで失った真の亡国であり,最後の一兵まで戦うことによってのみ死中に活路を見出し得るであろう。戦ってよし勝たずとも,護国に徹した日本精神さえ遺れば我等児孫は再起三起するであろう。戦争と決定された場合,我等軍人はただただ大命一下戦いに赴くのみである。そうして最後まで戦い抜くであろう。[26]
Mutoh, IJA bureaucrat said to an IJN bureaucrat, "If IJN couldn't win war against US and didn't want the war, IJA would withdraw troops in China." Why did Japan decide the withdrawal? I think that Japanese national sentiment against China and US changed in 1931 US stopped oil export to Japan in August, so Nagano thought Japan would lose IJN power. They judged Germany would win the WWII. They thought right to govern east Asia if Germany won the WWII, as the old leaders thought occupation of German colonies in WWI.

Tojo Government decided to open fire against US and UK in December, though IJA intelligence had reported that Germany would not win against Russia, and Total Research Institute had reported that Japan would not be able to continue the war in a few years.

 IJN Minister
IJN Minister and USN Secretary

NameDateTermBirth - Death
IJNOikawa1940Sep05 - 1941Oct181yr 1m1883 - 1958
Shimada1941Oct18 - 1944Jul172yr 9m1883 - 1976
Nomura1944Jul17 - 1944Jul224days1885 - 1973
Yonai1944Jul22 - 1945Dec011yr 4m1880 - 1948
USNKnox1940Jul11 - 1944April283yr 9m1874 - 1944
Forrestal1944May19 - 1947Sep173yr 3m1892 - 1949
All the bureaucratic ministers of IJN graduated Naval Academy, while USN secretary were governers. IJN Minister did not order the naval operation, who is a member of the cabinet. Prime Minister has to get agreement among all the ministers in cabinet meeting to govern Japan. Although Prime Minister could select someone as IJN Minister, IJN could refuse his selection. IJN recommended someone as IJN Minister to Prime Minister. When Prime Minister refused IJN recommendation, the Prime Minister could not make his cabinet. Sooner or later IJN Minister thought for IJN first. They wanted more warships and budget for themselves but people. Shimada was Minister and CNO at the same time[21]. Gumukyoku of IJN planned battle-ready weapon for suicide attack on 10 July 1944. IJN established suicide attack personel section on 13 September 1944[6]. I suppose that Inoue and Yonai approved the decision. While Inoue had ordered Takagi to work cease fire in August 1944[27]. Were they afraid of losing power than IJA? So IJN was eager to sucide weapons to compete IJA.

IJN Ministry 1941
Bureaucrats
While IJA beaucrates loved political power earlier than IJN. A few elite general staff discussed reform IJA for the total war in future. They were military attaches who were sent to Germany. Soon they thought they have to control domestic political issues[1][2][3][4]. Conventional IJA was controlled by old military senates like Yamagata, Katsura etc. After Yamagata's death, prime ministers of political parties were too unmatured to govern IJA. The old constitution did not work since old senates death of Meiji Restoration. The Prevy Seal choiced prime ministers next to next ignoring Diet majority. Militarists revolted government using the law badly. At last military bureaucrats won political conflict to govern Japan. It meant they got Mikado's favor. Mikado prayed Japan's victory like Mongol invasion in Kamakura era. We fought fanatic at the Pacific War, but we lost like fanatic Germans. Why did Japan and Germany challange against giant US?

IJN deputy ministers
NameDate
Hasegawa34May10-
Yamamoto36Dec01-
Sumiyama39Aug30-
Toyoda S.40Sep05-
Sawamoto41Apr04-
Oka44Jul18-
Inoue44Aug05-
Tada45May15-
Mito45Nov20-
Japanese people dislike leader ship extremly in history. A few dictators were assasinated. Midado had power, when Japan was independent from China in 7th century. Soon Kanpaku governed Japan. Fujiwara clan inheritated Kanpaku. Kanpaku was father of Mikado's mother. Mikado was a symbol of government. Mikado's father or grand father had right to govern instead of Mikado, when kanpaku lost his power. They were called Jyokou (上皇). Shogun had power, when bushi got power to govern local government instead of Jyoukou. Soon Shikken (執権) got power instead of Shogun. Shikken belonged to Hojo clan. Soon a family of Hojo was called Tokuso (得宗). Tokuso had power. Shogun was a symbol of government in Kamakura era. Kanrei (管領) governed Japan, after three successive Ashikaga Shogun governed in Muromacchi era. Only several Shogun governed Japan, though fifteen Tokugawa Shogun were counted in Edo era. This traditional govern system works even now. Ministers are symbol of ministry. Deputy Ministers govern Japan actually. They are bureacucrats. Hasegawa decided to withdraw 2nd London Naval Disarmament Conference. Yamamoto requested IJA to dispatch troops in Shanghai on 10 August 1937. Toyoda agreed Three-Power Pact in September 1940. Sawamoto was IJN Deputy Minister. He decided to open fire in December 1941. Inoue organized suicide attack groups and prepared cease fire. Tada covered up IJN responsibilty.

Japanese bureaucrats dare to select the big mistake to conceal their smaller mistakes. I hope that Japan will not fail again.

 IJN General Staff
IJN General Staff
DateChief of 1st secDeputy CNOCNO
41Apr09FukutomeKondohNagano
41Sep01FukutomeItohNagano
43Jun15NakazawaItohNagano
44Feb21NakazawaItohShimada
44Aug02NakazawaItohOikawa
44Nov18NakazawaOzawaOikawa
44Dec15TomiokaOzawaOikawa
45May29TomiokaOnishiToyoda
The next table shows chief of 1st section of Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff ( IJNGS ). The staffs were over 60 members[22]. The IJNGS was indepentent from Government and dependent on Mikado directly. IJN general staff and Grand Fleet Head Quarter planned operations of the Pacific War. Tomioka wrote analysis of USN and estimated loss of merchant ships wrong in 1941[14]. Fukutome was a boss of Tomioka when Japan began the Pacific War[16]. Nakazawa was a typical military bureaucrat[15]. They planned suicide attacks in loosing the war at last. Kurosima was a chief of 2nd section. He told a knockout with deadly method on a operation meeting on 11 August 1943[7][18]. Shimada suggested to Mikado surfaced and submerged suicide attacks vaguely on 8 July 1944[8]. Oikawa approved that fighters would load a bomb and do suicide attack combat on 5 October 1944[17]. I think Kondoh told his boss opinion about operation. So Kondoh became a fleet commander of GF. Kondoh told Yamamoto that IJN should stop traffic between US and Australia just before drill of Midway Operation on 1 May 1942, as follows[23].
    America 空母部隊 wa hotondo 無傷 de ari, sarani Aemrica ha Midway wo 基地 tosuru 基地航空部隊 wo 作戦 ni 投入 dekirunoni hanshite, 日本 ha dekinai. Yotte Midway 作戦 wo yamete, America to Australia wo 遮断 suru kotoni 集中 subeki dearu.
Most of bureaucratic staffs did not argue and passed away in peace after the war except for Itoh, Onishi and Kami.

GF Staff
IJN GF Staff
DateSenior staffChief staffCommander
SurrenderYamaokaYanoOzawa
45May01KamiKusagaToyoda
44May01TakadaKusagaToyoda
TarawaTakada
Yanagisawa
FukutomeKoga
PearlKuroshimaUgakiYamamoto
Yamamoto, a commander of Grand Fleet wrote letters to Minister of IJN Oikawa and CNO Shimada on 7 January and 24 October 1941. He demanded Shimada all the aircraft carriers which would attack the Pearl Harbor. He wished that Oikawa would prepare aircraft crews enough to lose them badly because air battles[24].

The table shows senior or chief staffs of IJN GF (Grand Fleet). Admiral of GF was a commander who ordered and controlled the fleet. In fact, a chief of staff of GF ordered and senior staff planned operations and wrote orders. While Nimitz (1885-1966), Admiral of the USN Pacific Fleet wrote an order of action to kill Yamamoto by himself, and his staffs advised him only. The table shows the senior staffs of GF. Takada was one of key persons who offered a new naval war plan in 1941. And Takada was also a member of a group in favor of Axes[19]. Kuroshima planned the Pearl Harbor attack and proposed suicide attack. This was the aim of summary operations at the Pacific War. But the summary did not refer to escort of merchant ships.

  1. Touhou ni taishite ha Beikoku Kantai wo gekihasi katsu Touyou ni taisuru Beikoku no Sakusen oyobi Hokyusen wo shadansu.
  2. Seihou ni taishite ha Eiryou Marei houmen wo kouryakushi Eikoku no Touyou ni taisuru Sakusensen, Hokyusen oyobi 'Burma route' wo shadan su
  3. Zai touyou Teki Heiryoku wo Gekimetushi sono Sakusen Kyoten wo ubautotomoni Sigenchi wo kakutokusu
  4. Youchi wo Kouryaku kakudai, boubi wo kyokasite Jikyu sakusen wo kakuho su
  5. Teki heiryoku wo yougeki gekimetsu su
  6. Senka wo kakudaishi teki no seni wo ubau

Kami proposed suicide attack of battleship Yamato in Ten-gou operation[20]. Tomioka might told to supply Yamato and other escort waships with 2,000t of fuel. IJN stopped big warships to save fuel in February 1945. Itoh was a commander of the fleet and Ariga was a captain of Yamato in the battle of Okinawa. They refused to abandon ship. Itoh was loyal to GF commander. He agreed with the desperate mission, though captains of destroyers resisted it. After all, all the destroyers were full of fuel, when they went the mission. This was the first and the last when IJN captains were unwilling to higher officers in history. Government awarded Itoh the same medal on 26 June 1974 after USAAF LeMay.

Toyoda ordered Kikusui Operation in the battle of Okinawa. Chihaya was a staff of GF who criticized operations of GF and Kuroshima bitter[9]. Toyoda[13] evaluated the result of Taiwan air battle wrong in Shinchiku[10]. Yamaoka was a naval war college student, when Ozawa was an instructor of it. Yamaoka insisted concentrated aircraft carriers to strike US fleet. That was birth of Kido Butai[11].

 IJA admirals
Japanese common people thought IJN was smarter than IJA. Actually IJN announced false result of battles to IJA and did not tell the fact. So a lot of IJA soldiers had to be killed in desperate battles. For example, IJN announced a big victory of air battle off Taiwan. So IJA stopped a war plan in Luzon and decided to intercept Leyte in October 1944. This is why IJA lost guns and tanks at Leyte. These equippment were used in Luzon originally.

Nomura Naokuni
After the Pacific War, an US official asked Nomura[47], 'How do you think about USN submarine operation?' He replied, 'I hardly think that USN operated such a fierce attack. Because Americans did not like submarines. you insisted void submarines.' Nomura surveyed submarines in Germany from 1922 to 1924
Morimoto, p96-97

Nagano and King
Nagano[48] was the heighest ranked IJN officer, CNO of IJN, when Japan began the Pacific War. After the war, US intelligence officers asked him the war. He said, 'I do not know submarines well.' Nagano admitted Yamamoto's plan to attack Pearl Harbor. Nagano said, "IJN lost 36% of warships by submarines, 11% by gun fire and 46% by aircraft about warship bigger than destroyer[41]," after the war. While King[49] was a naval aviator and commanded USS Lexington. He also worked at a submarine base.

Yamamoto and Nimitz
Nimitz[52] was engaged in building submarine base in Pearl #333 Habor in 1920. He commanded submarines operation directly in the Pacific War. While Yamamoto[50] commanded submarines indirectly. All the IJN submarines were the 6th fleet. He was killed by assasination during a flight to the front inspection.

Replace of commanders 2 vs 26
Zuikaku's bow
Zuikaku
Nimitz and King often changed commanders of small fleet, if they were unsuitable to command. They changed 26 in spite of winning the Pacific War.

Otherwise IJN changed only a few vice admirals, Hosogaya Boshiro and Inoue Shigeyoshi. It seems to me that USN was a private company to seek much gain and IJN was a public office not to be allowable to mistake. Personnel section of IJN assigned commanders as usual even at the desperate Pacific War. It seems that the IJN bureaucrats did their service on Confucianism-like at the wartime. Certainly admirals were bureaucrats of navy. Mikado appointed them shinnin-kan[54]. Navy is an organizaion of Government. How do we think the result of IJN replace of commanders?

While captains of big warships killed themselves with sinking IJN warships. Why? See the photo of IJN aircraft carrier Zuikaku. You see the emblem of Mikado. All the captains of IJN warships served themselves for Mikado's country ( 皇国 ). They should be ashamed to abandan ship in the Pacifc War. This resembles Yakuza's society. A yakuza must always prepare his sacrifice for his boss and its organization. It occurred short of excellent commanders. Commanders of merchant ship convoys had been all reserved old captains.[43] IJN operations were to be adovoacted by a few eccentric staff and to be commanded by innocent admirals ironically. Although the fleet commander could move to Oyodo, the captain of Zuikaku sank with her. IJN had already begun production of suicide weapons and trained suicide crews then.
官吏

Lunch listening to a naval brass band
Staffs of GF(Grand Fleet) of Hashirajima and 4th Fleet of Truk Islands had lunch listening to music of naval brass band, when USN began to attack Martial Islands in February 1942[42]. The flag ship of GF was battle ship Nagato and the other was cruiser Kashima[53]. The commanders were Yamamoto of GF and Inoue of 4th Fleet then.[51]

US admirals life in Guam
USAAF LeMay was invited by US admirals three times in Janurary 1945. Nimitz lived in a house with a chandelier[45]. Lockwood invited him in his yacht. I think the yacht was a submarine tender. Hoover had a tennis court for himself only. Hoover commanded the land-based naval air force that supported the Central Pacific campaign and was tasked to develop the new air bases on the captured islands[46].

War responsiblity
IJN managed to protect high ranked officers to be prosecuted as war criminals. While high ranked officers of IJA condemned their responsiblity each other. IJN began the Pacific War and escaped the responsiblity behind Mikado. IJN clearly opposed to ratify Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Certainly they were too unified and to their organizaion as bureaucrats and closed society, I think. This is an aspect to be seen in Japan. I say, it "Nihon system."

KIA
Admiral Togo commanded GF on battleship Mikasa. Mikasa was a top runner of GF. This was a history of Japanese-Russo War. Nimitz commanded in Honolulu or Guam. Yamamoto commanded on battleship Nagato, Yamato and Musashi in Hashirajima, Truk and Rabaul. Innocence of IJN intelligence occurred his KIA in Rabaul air battle. Other vice admirals were Itoh, Yamagata, Nagumo, Takagi, Nishimura and Tsunoda. Were there any vice admirals of USN in KIA?

 IJA bureaucrats
After death of great generals since Meiji Restoration, political conflict occurred how Government or Mikado control IJA and IJN among political parties, when Naval Disarmament. Some genrals and admirals intervened domestic policy, but they were bureaucrats simply. IJA and IJN were independent from control of Goverment after teros. IJA staff began controlling IJA ministers. Nagata Tetsuzan and Tojo Hideki were ones of them. IJA Minister Araki made a new fraction Kodo-ha. He pulled out ( Obata, Yamashita and Yamaoka of Tosa ) and ( Mutaguchi and Dobashi of Saga ) from Isseki-kai. Nagata was a leader of Isseki-kai. Mazaki and Yanagawa were Saga.(25)
    1933Aug-- Nagata was inaugurated Brigadier of 1st Brigade
    1934Mar05 Nagata was inaugurated Director of IJA ministry
    1935Aug12 Nagata was assasinated
IJA generals
Bakufu learned military system from France before Meiji era. Meiji Government leard it from France and UK. But IJA stopped learning from France because France was beatn by Germany. IJA sent a lot of attaches to Germany, who became genrals after WWI. They learned WWI as total war wrong. When Germany beat France by blitz krieg in WWII, its result attracted most of IJA generals. There was only a genral who was sent to US as attache in 39 generals, when the Pacific War broke. German goverment prepared young maids for Japanese attaches. So a Japanese attache requested US goverment for a maid, but the US refused the demand[44].

 Yoshida's summary of diplomatic failure in 15-year War
Yoshida Shigeru ordered bureaucrats of Foreign Affair Ministry why Japan failed and mistook at 15-year War in January 1951[38].
  1. Taikyoku-kan ( 大局観 ) no ketsujo ( 欠如 ), tai Chugoku seisaku ( 対中国政策 ) no shippai ( 失敗 )
  2. Genjitu-teki shikou ( 現実的思考 ) no ketsujo ( 欠如 ), Keishiki-syugi ( 形式主義 ), kibou-teki ( 希望的 ) na Handan ( 判断 ) wo yusen ( 優先 ) sita koto
  3. Nando ka atta Gaikou-teki ( 外交的 ) na Tenkan ( 転換 ) no Jiki wo isshita koto, hikigiwa ( 引際 ) wo ayamatta koto
  4. Ketudan-ryoku ( 決断力 ), Jikko-ryoku ( 実行力 )ga nakatta. Tokuni Gaimu daijin ( 外務大臣 ) ga syoku ( 職 ) wo toshite Gun ( 軍 ) ni hantai ( 反対 ) sureba, jitai ( 事態 ) wo kui tomeru koto ga dekita ga, sno yuki ga nakatta.
  5. Jyudaiji ( 重大事 ) ni attate, nandemo onbin ( 穏便 ) ni osameyou to sita koto ga, kekkyoku, boukoku ( 亡国 ) ni tunagatta
 Historical backgroud
Japanese society dislikes that a single person leads a group or organization. Long time ago, Mikado called Tenchi lead Japan strong in a crisis of a defeated battle in Korea. After the crisis, noble clan Fujiwara governed Japan as ministers of Mikado. Shogun of bakufu governed Japan as Fujiwara did. Small daimyos (lords) served Shogun after the middle of Edo era. They governed Japan as rojyu (ministers). Daimyo was a govener or lord of a han (country), however they were born in Edo and lived there. So staffs of the daimyo governed their home land in actually. This system sees everywhere in every society of Japan even now.

And so IJN and IJA controlled Government behind Mikado. Originally IJN and IJA were under the control of the Cabinet before 1920s. A site 'Imperial Japanese Navy' shows high ranked IJN officers[12].

[1] 3-gatsu jiken to 10-gatsu jiken
[2] Furuya Tetsuo
[3] Nagata memo
[4] Showa shoki no seishin kouzou
[5] Kihon Kokusaku Youkou
[6] Morimoto, p350
[7] Morimoto, p347
[8] Morimoto, p355
[9] Chihaya, p126, p233-238
[10] Nakajima, p219
[11] Terasaki p.91
[12] Imperial Japanese Navy
[13] Toyoda Soemu (1885-1957)
[14] Tomioka Sadatoshi (1897-1970)
[15] Nakazawa Tasuku(1894-1977)
[16] Fukutome Shigeru (1891-1971)
[17] Oikawa Koshiro (1883-1958)
[18] Kuroshima Kameto (1893-1965)
[19] Takada Toshitane (1895-1987)
[20] Kami Shigenori (1900-1945)
[21] Shimada Shigetarou(1883-1976)
[22] Chihaya, jyoh, p93
[23] Chihaya, ge, p93
[24] Chihaya, jyoh, p80, p99
(25) Kawada p216-217
[26] Morimoto, p405
[27] 終戦工作
[28] Hirohito, p136
[29] Ouoka, p41, vol9
[38] Maesaka, p9
[41] NHK1, p245-246
[42] Chihaya p.212
[43] Ohi, p103
[44] Watashi no Sensou-ron 歴史街道「真珠湾攻撃」平成13年9月号P105
[45] Super fortress, p182-183
[46] John Hoover
[47] Nomura Naokuni (1885-1973)
[48] Nagano Osami (1880-1947)
[49] Ernest King (1878-1956)
[50] Yamamoto Isoroku (1884-1943)
[51] Inoue Shigeyoshi
[52] Chester Nimitz (1885-1966)
[53] IJN Kashima
[54] 親任官

 2. Chinese governers, beaucrats and revolutionalists
Kakyo ( 科挙 )
China has long history of bureaucracy. Local beaucrats governed people severe with country squires. Chinese and Korean student learned Analects very hard to be bureaucrats. Both governments selected them by test how they learned Analects. All the dynasties of China always collapsed because of revolt of farmers. Secret party made important roll to build next dynasty. Chinese Communist Party is one of the parties in her long history. Beaucrates governed China with landlords and wealthy merchants. China is a merchant country. Merchants built walls and lived in the walls with bureaucrats and soldiers.

 Governers and revolutionalists
The table shows birth places of Chinese military governers, revolutionalist and beaucrates since 19th century. Modern beaucrates of 黒龍江省 and 雲南省 are not listed up. 黒龍江省 was the homeland of Qing Dynasty. Armies of 雲南 sometimes invaded rich 広東 before, and historical governments of China always fled there, when they were threatned by enemies from the north including Japan. They occurred strange Sino-Vietnamese War ( 中越戦争 ) in 1979.
北伐
張作霖
中越戦争

Governers and revolutionalists
YearNameBirth placeFather's classMilitary record
1943-****徐才厚遼寧省
中央軍委副主席
1944-****李長春遼寧省
1946-****張徳江遼寧省
1935-1992王洪文吉林省
Korean War, 党副主席
1944-****回良玉吉林省
1835-1908西太后河北省旗人
1859-1919馮国璋河北省
北洋武備学堂, 大総統
1940-****賈慶林河北省
1941-****王兆国河北省
1942-****温家宝河北省
1942-****王剛河北省
1953-****習近平河北省広東省党委書記中央軍事委副主席
1907-1971林彪湖北省
中央軍事委副主席
1811-1872曽国藩湖南省
進士, 湘軍創設, 欽差大臣
1874-1916黄興湖南省
参謀総長
1882-1913宋教仁湖南省小地主
1889-1970唐生智湖南省
1893-1976毛沢東湖南省富農中央軍事委員会主席
1898-1974彭徳懐湖南省貧農湖南軍官講武堂, 中央軍事委副主席
1899-1967李立三湖南省
1915-1989胡耀邦湖南省
1943-****賀国強湖南省
1823-1901李鴻章安徽省
進士, 淮軍(北洋軍)創設
1865-1936段祺瑞安徽省祖父淮軍北洋武備学堂, 大総統
1879-1942陳独秀安徽省
1882-1948馮玉祥安徽省淮軍北洋新軍, Exiled eunuches
1891-1962胡適安徽省
1941-****呉邦国安徽省
1955-****汪洋安徽省
1955-****李克強安徽省
****-****熊成基江蘇省
1926-****江澤民江蘇省
中央軍事委主席
1941-****陳炳徳江蘇省
1942-****胡錦濤江蘇省小営業主中央軍事委主席
1942-****周永康江蘇省
1945-****劉延東江蘇省
1950-****李源潮江蘇省
1859-1916袁世凱河南省
淮軍, 大総統
1898-1969劉少奇河南省
国家主席
1949-****常万全河南省
1887-1975蒋介石浙江省塩商人IJA, 黄埔軍官学校長, 対日共産, 総統
1910-1988蒋経国浙江省蒋介石総統
1932-2005姚文元浙江省作家
1945-****兪正声浙江省
1814-1864洪秀全広東省客家
1858-1898康有為広東省
1866-1925孫文広東省
1884-1944汪兆銘広東省
1897-1986葉剣英広東省客家豪商陸軍講武学校, 中央軍事委副主席
1924-****葉選平広東省葉剣英
1861-1911端方-
1874-1939呉佩孚山東省商人陸軍参謀総長
1875-1928張作霖山東省
馬賊, 大元帥
1885-1935孫伝芳山東省
北洋武備学堂卒, IJA, 五省聯軍総司令
1914-1991江青山東省毛夫人
1917-2005張春橋山東省
作家, 解放軍総政治部主任
1942-****李継耐山東省
1944-****靖志遠山東省
1944-****王楽泉山東省
1950-****許其亮山東省
1883-1960閻錫山山西省
IJA
1947-****劉雲山山西省
1948-****王岐山山西省
1949-****薄熙来山西省
1942-****郭伯雄陝西省
中央軍事委副主席
1871-1949呉虞四川省
1886-1976朱徳四川省貧農八路軍総司令, 国家副主席
1904 - 1997小平四川省客家系地主中央軍事委員会主席
1940 - ****梁光烈四川省
1940 - ****廖錫竜貴州省
中央軍事委員会委員
1875-1907秋瑾福建省
1946-****張高麗福建省

 Governers of 上海市 and 広東
上海市党委書記
YearNameBirth
1991-1994呉邦国 1941 安徽省
1994-2002黄菊 1938-2007 浙江省
2002-2006陳良宇1946 浙江省
2006-2007韓正 1954 浙江省
広東省党委書記
YearNameBirth
1998-2002李長春1944 遼寧省
2002-2007張徳江1946 遼寧省
2007-****汪洋1955 安徽省
上海市 and 広東 are very rich now, as they were in Qing. It seems that 北京政府 controls 広東 because 広東省党委書記 were not from 広東 now. But 3 successive 上海市党委書記 are from 浙江. 蒋介石 was also from 浙江. It seems to be independent from 北京. 文化大革命 began from 上海. 上海 is too rich to revolt. If a big revolt break, 北京政府 have to control money of 上海市 and 広東 not to support the revolt. 蒋介石 could not win the conflict with CCP without support of merchants. He had bargained domestic resources and rights to manage Chinese economy too much.
陳良宇
浙江省

 Difference between Western peasants and Chinese farmers revolts
John Ball in 14th century and Thomas Müntzer in 17th century insisted to be free farmers from controlled peasants under lords. But Chinese farmers revolted to be new bureaucrats ( 官 ) of a new dynasty against an old dynasty. As for Japan, Samurai were also bureaucrats and inherited power. Revolted Japanese farmers never wanted to be samurai in Edo era. 洪秀全 of 太平天国 publicized a strange marrige law in 1861. Bureaucrats must have wives respond to their bureaucratic class. 東王 and 西王 might have 11 wives, 南王, 豫王 etc were 6 wives, high class bureaucrats were 3, middle class bureaucrats were 2 and low class beaucrats were one.
洪秀全 and 太平天国 p124, p163
John Ball
Thomas Müntzer


 3. Traditional east Asian bribery
Bureaucrats usually took bribes. The bribe was a part of goverment system. Although Japanese government of Edo era did not test bureaucrats by Analects, bureaucrats corrupted. Modern bureaucrats of Japan made endemic corruption system at last. The system absorbs tax legally whether Congress approved or not. We call it 構造汚職.

China
A British ambassador wrote how bureaucrats of Qing government spent Emperor's money. A flood occurred in Cantong. A Emporor gave 50,000 両 from his fund(内奴+巾) to save people. Central government took 20,000 両 at first. Local governments took 10,000 両, 5,000 両... The rest of the gift was only 10,000 両. The ambassador recognized it systematic 弊風 correct. There was a bureaucrat called 和王+申. He was a minister of Qing. He gathered bribes as follows,
  • 金元宝 1,000 個(1個 = 100 両, equivalent silver 1.5 million 両)
  • 銀元宝 1,000 個
  • 赤金 5.8 million 両
  • 生沙金 2 million 両
  • 元宝銀 9.40 million 両
  • 洋銭 58,000 円
He also held real estates of 75 質屋, 42 両替屋 and 13 骨董店 managed them. Bureaucrats of China invented money laundry to manage 骨董店.
Miyazaki, p349

陳良宇 was accused and judged for bribery. He took 2.39 million 元 and He got estate illegaly and sold it for 118 million 元[11]. What did he spent the money for? A Chinese girl has a dream of being a bribery beaucrat in 広州[10]

Japan
A judge in Germany revealed IJN system bribery in purchasing equippment or warships from Germany and UK[5]. As the result, a vice admiral was exiled from IJN. A IJN officer fled to Canada where he died 32 years later[6]. A former deputy minister of Defense was arrested with his wife in 2007[7]. They have been under a bribe trial at high court. He was a top of bureaucrats of Defense Ministry. Prime Minister Tanaka was arrested in 1976 and guilty of bribery at the Tokyo High Court in 1987[8]. Japan has eight laws of 単純収賄罪, 受託収賄罪, 事前収賄罪, 第三者供賄罪, 加重収賄罪, 事後収賄罪, あっせん収賄罪 and 贈賄罪 to judge bureaucrats bribery[9].

Korea
Disappeared bribery
Bribe
A small company in Kyoto opened its branch in Korea a long time ago. The president sometimes flew to Soul from Osaka on business. He sighed to me that he had to have given bribes everywhere to do business speedy. It seemed that gift was important for human relations. He prepared some panty stockings for customs and ball point pens for clients. He gave them women clerks of the clients. He closed the barnch after a while. The table shows accused persons of bribery. The bribery number increased from 1,339 in 1994 to 1,919 in 1998[1]. But Corruption Perceptions Index of Korea becomes good[2]. Has bribery culture changed in Korea? Korean President 全斗煥, 盧泰愚 were made open of stocking money illegaly[3][4].

 4. Military tops in the non-nuke nations
NationNameBirth yearRemark
AustraliaJohn Faulkner 1954he entered the Australian Senate in 1989
DenmarkSøren Gade1963son of shipmaster
GermanyGuttenberg1972his wife is Stephanie von Bismarck-Sch
JapanKitazawa1938son of Nagano Congressman
VietnamPhung Quang Thanhe

VietnamDenmarkJapan
VietnamDenmarkJapan

Merkel's New Cabinet
Søren Gade
Vietnamese People's Army Newspaper

[1] 韓国
[2] Corruption Perceptions Index
[3] 全斗煥
[4] 盧泰愚
[5] Siemens Scandal
[6] 波 ni 夕陽 no 影 mo naku 海軍少佐竹内十次郎 no 生涯
[7] Moriya Takemasa
[8] Tanaka Kakuei
[9] 公務員の犯罪
[10] 汚職官僚
[11] 陳良宇被告懲役18年一審判決


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