1. Cipher
Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific
This page contains kanji characters.

Cipher is one of the most important technique of intelligence to have securities or secrets from enemies or others. But Japanese Government ciphers always were broken by the US. Why do Japanese bureaucrats were fools to protect her nation's top secrets? I have read a few books about intelligence war articles. Japansese people including bureaucrats think who cheats someone is wrong, while the world commons thinks cheated one is a fool. Anyway, the US deciphered Japanese encryption well, as Japanese experts did not know the fact at all. Even now, Japanese diplomatic codes are deciphered by US, China and Russia. So Japanese Government always will fail tough negotiations with US, China and Russia.

US deciphered Japanese diplomatic ciphers in the summer of 1921, and could tie Washington Treaty. The cryptologist were only two officers and a petty officer. US Army hired Freedman who lead 20 members. US Navy established OP20G in 1921. FBI, USN and NYC Police copied all the pages of Japanese code book of IJN 1918 edition.

Secretary of Queen Elizabeth, Walsingham(1532-1590) had hired 53 agents in the Continent. He got a letter of plan conquering England in Netherlands. So He monitored Mary. His cryptologist read Mary's ciphered letters in 1588. John Wallis(1616-1703) broke ciphered messages of Louis 14th.
Kippenhahn p.26-28
Tsuji, p81
Francis Walsingham
John Wallis

I watched DVD of 'Elizabeth' before. The actor of Walsingham was nice. I also watched 'Golden Age' recently. I understood meaning of words secretary, chamber and cabinet in the films. A map was drawn in a floor of her chamber. America was not drwan in the map yet. The wealth of America occurred trading with China. Sooner Western world overwhelmed China with military and industrial revolution in the conflict of Europe nations.

Walsingham had supper with his wife and daughter. He wore a gogerous kippa. The second movie of 'Elizabeth' was less impressed by Elizabeth's maid Beth and her lover Walter. But this time Elizabeth and Beth's dresses looked clear and beautiful. The lace of the dresses are interesting because we have not accepted lace till Meiji era. The movie shows Elizabeth in Curch with high skewed angle of camera. I remember film of marrige of Princess Ann. The film impressed the ceremony with high angled camera.

Elizabeth declared war with Spain. She wore armor and made a speech for troops of England. Is it true? She did not say in the movie, 'God bless you'. Or script of Japanese ignored, didn't it? President Bush said the word, when US broke Iraq War. Phillip II prayed and Elizabeth did not pray before her private altar in the movie. I felt it a sense of comming modern age.
Old St Paul's Cathedral

Mikado's Palace
Palace layout in 18813 alters in Palace
While once Hirohito sent his Imperial envoys to Ise Shrine and Atuta Shrine. He wished the win of the Pacific War. Ise Shrine was originally his families' private shrine, but the shrine became a symbol of commons' wish and reform movement(Yonaoshi) in Edo era. After WWII, Hirohito thought and looked in the defeat. He admitted that Crown Prince married with a Catholic, but he himself prayed before his private alter(kasiko-dokoro) in the palace every day older and older. The kasiko-dokoro is wide 70m2, and the base of the alter is higher than other 2 alters. Only Mikado, Kogo, Crown Prince, Crown Princess and Mikado's servants and maids are allowed to enter the alter. I think that he reflected the defeat of the Pacific War and believed in relief of Japan like ancient Mikados almost 1,300 years ago.
Atsuta Shrine

Kenshin Tsuruoka
Uesugi KenshinTuruoka Hatimangu
Usami Sadamitsu, military adviser of Uesugi Kenshin used monoalphabetic substitution cipher.[2][3] Kenshin was an excellent warlord of tactics.[6] He defeated Hojo, Takeda and Oda clan. He lived like a war priest and accepted rank of Kanto Kanrei because his ancestor was a mayor of Uesugi. Uesugi was a mayor of Ashikaga. Ashikaga was a relative clan of noble warrior Genji. Kenshin prayed with othe Kanto samurais in Turuoka Hatimangu Shrine, when he campainged Kanto governed by Hojo clan

Commdore Perry gave a gift of telegram machine Bakufu ( Government ) in the end of Edo era. The age of telegram began. Japan read ciphered diplomatic telegram of Qing, when Japan and Qing negotiated peace after Japanese-Qing War.

IJA invited intelligence officer of Poland to learn how to decipher Russian cipher in 1923.[7][8] IJA officer and cryptanalysts, Kamaga deciphered M-209 machine codes in the end of the Pacific War.

US official might stole copy of punctuation codes of diplomatic cipher in New York Embassy in 1939. An individual has been able to use any ciphers in Japan, although study of cipher was banned for a short time after the Pacific War.
Tsujii, p202

George Washington's agent used 800 ciphered usage.[4] USN had used cipher basic method that Jefferson invented till WWII.[5]

Crack of MOFA angou(Purple)
US called cipher of MOFA of Japan Purple. MOFA used the cipher badlly. The wrong usage gave clues to decrypt. They used long formal aisatu sentence : ܻȤϡղ󤹤Τɤͭ. A team of US Army Signals Intelligence Service(SIS) broke MOFA's cipher of Japan in 1941. The cipher was called Purple. Friedmman directed the team, who entered SIS in 1921. Central Bureau of US Army SIS got code books of IJA in New Gunia. The Bureau could decipher 36,000 messages on Mar 1944, though it deciphered only 2,000 a month ago before getting the code books. The members of the bureau reached 4,000 in the end of the Pacific War.
Tsujii, p99
Yoshida p.74
Papuru Ango

Crack of IJN D-angou(JN-25)
7 cryptanalysts related with Japanese cipher
Yardley1889-1958Memoirs of MI-8, "The American Black Chamber"
Driscoll1889-1971Originally hoped to be a teacher of math
Safford1890-1973Adopted Rochefort
Friedman1891-1969Originally studied genetics
Rochefort1898-1976USN officer, HYPO leader
Rowlett1908-1998Named a cipher of Japan purple
Dyer1902-1985USN officer, HYPO member
In a movie of Tora tora, Kimmel asked where is IJN aircraft carries just before Pearl Harbor Raid? How USN Intelligence knew about the raid plan? USN knew Midway campaign plan of IJN half a year later after Pearl Harbor Raid. It seems unnatural. USN intercepted perfectly the direction and date of IJN carriers invading in the battle of Midway. And USN succeeded in kill of Yamamoto. An operator of USN Pacific Fleet singal intelligence received an IJN ciphered telegram on 13 Apr 1943 in Hawaii. The telegram was transferred to CIU(Command Intelligence Unit) by a teletypewriter at onece. A decrypter encrypted the message by an IBM machine. The machine printed out a plain text ciphered by IJN D encryption which was called JN-25 in USN. A cryptanalyst found that recipents of the message was a lot as usual transmitted at 1755(JST). So another cryptanalyst Lasswell deciphered it in detail with Dyer and Wright. The message showed Yamamoto's inspect on 18 Apr. Nimitz knew the message at 0800 on 14th. Nimitz wrote an order telegram. It is unusual that a high ranked admiral writes an telegram by himself in IJN. The night a reply came from Numea that P-38 could attack it from Gudalcanal with additional fuel tanks. On 15th, Secretary of Navy, Knox knew the message from Zakarius. Mitcher held meetings with air commanders of Navy, Marines and AAF. Mitchell planed flight raid. On 17th evening, a transport plane ferried additional tanks. The Operation was named 'Dillinger'. The next morning 16 P-38G flew in 4 formations for 2h10m to Buin. They flew unbelivable altitude 30 - 50ft. They began acending after the last turn, to 2,000ft. At 0934, They contacted targets distance 3 - 4mi, height difference 8,000 - 9,000ft.
Gunzo, p80-90
Operation Vengeance

NSA shows up 42 giants of cipher.[1] What 7 of them had relation with cracking ciphers of Japan! USN HYPO team's decryption of IJN cipher D took destructive results in the battle of Midway and assasination of Yamamoto. GHQ of allied armies in Japan banned study of cipher on 24 December 1945. This shows how US is afraid of being cracked their ciphers.

Signal intelligence after 30s
Churchill wrote a letter that he ordered not to read ciphered US DOS messages any more on 25th Feb 1942. Both nation agreed to BRUSA Comint Agreement.
Kaji p.104

Russian politician ֧٧ҧѧ٧(Beruzorazohu), be loved by Zar, said to Ambassdor Awano just before breaking the Japanese-Russo War, "You have changed my name." This meant Japan changed his name an abbreviated code to shorten telegram ciphers. Russia broke diplomatic cipher of Japan, when Japan and Russia negotiated peace after Japanese-Russo War at Portsmouth. So Witte might negotiate better than Komura. Witte said to Awano after the meetin at Portsmouth, "It seems to other nations cipher of Japanese government is the same of plain text." But I think Japan telegramed between Tokyo and Portmath by All Red Route in wire that UK built in 1902. Only UK was an allied power of Japan in those days. How Russia stole encrypted diplomatic wired telegram of Japan? Japan made wired telegram network in islands between Korea and Kyushu just before the battle of the Japan Sea. IJN winned in the effort of wireless telegram and GF(Grand Fleet) could communicate with Japan mainland by wire. MOFA of Japan did not learn the fact of cracking after the Washington treaty.
Tsuji, p83
Sergei Witte
Russia-jin no Sei

German Max Clausen of a communist sent ciphered messages in English from Tokyo to Moscow that Japan would invade Indochina not Russia. They used key from German empire statics yearbook of 1935. He assembled wireless transmitter.
Kippenhahn p.11-17
Makkusu Krauzen

Intelligence of Russia might be the most excellent among powers. GPU or KGB knew secrets of Japanese war plan, UK diplomatic policy and US war technologies. Certainly Russia and US are nations that bosses of KGB or CIA were President of their nations. Japanese government failed to know secrets of US nuke and Russian war plan. So a lot of Japanese people died at a loss.

 ENIAC and Bombe
I knew ENIAC in an electronics handy book at first. It said, 'the first programmed electronic computing machine in the world'. Several years later, I knew Turing Machine in a programming book, written in English originally. Alan Turing(1912-1954) worked at Bletchley Park to break enemy cipher and suceeded. The machine was called Bombe.
Bletchley Park
Colossus computer

 Signal intelligence of powers and MOFA of Japan
Germany broke cipher of MOFA completely at first which was called Purple in US. Germany warnmed Ambassador Oshima that allied nations read codes of MOFA in a polite way on Apr 1941. Pherhaps Germany was afraid that her military information leaked via MOFA. US used a lot of punch card machines to sort codes. Germany and Japan had imported the machines from US. How Germany and Russia could break Purple without machines?

 Security mind
IJN code was broken, so the battle of Midway and kill of Yamamo occurred. Once Genda said, 'There is no way to win with the kill of Yamamoto because of cracking IJN cipher'. MOFA and IJN had not made effort to improve how to handle cipher machines because they did not mind securities of Japan. They were much busier in their domestic ministris' rights to confront IJA. Japanese embassy of Spain got a faint information of US nucler delopment, but cracking of ciphers occurred deaths of agent in the US.

 My shelf
I count up books on my shelves about intelligence and cipher. Japan fought only information. Leaders of IJA and IJN often ignored opinion of intelligence section. Only operation section of IJA and IJN planned the war. How united organization did not always work well?
  1. Code breaking 1997 : The most interested book to me.
    GuderianRommel with Fi156C

    There is a photo that Guderian is waiting for translation of cipher by enigmas in wagen. He is the most excellent commander of kikosen ( tank battle ) among Japanese military maniac. I rather prefer Rommel (1891-1944) with a Fi156C.

  2. Blind man's bluff 1998 : I felt melting mood of USN submariners. The book dipicts a bar called 'Horse & Cow' in CA. The photo of banners reminded me of a bar where Brigadier General Yeager and his fellows gathered in the film 'The Right Stuff'. But the real Horse & Cow in WA is a mood of old Navy and rum.
    Horse & Cow

  3. The black chamber 1931 : people of Japan read Yardley's work much more 4 folds than US people per population.
  4. An introduction to computers and problem solving 1968 : I knew Turing Machine at first
  5. Ango to jyoho shakai 1999 : I was surprised at the budget of CIA and NSA
  6. Echelon to jyoho senso 2002 : Good book, the author Kaji was a jyoho tushin officer of JSDFAF.
  7. IT no yami 2000 : Concentration of 9 NSA's internet access points in the US is interested. At first I had imagined such the place of National Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
  8. Echelon 2001 : No value book now.
  9. Ango Kaidoku Senso 2001 : No value book now. Author Yoshida's another Ango senso was better.
  10. Novels : The name of the rose 1983, Enigma 1995, The da vinci code 2003
[1] Hall of Honor
[2] Tsuji p.67-68
[3] Usami Sadamitsu(1489-1564)
[4] Kippenhahn p.31-33, p.63
[5] Jefferson disk
[6] Uesugi Kenshin (1530-1578)
[7] Nakajima p.256
[8] Ango Kaidoku Sidosha no Syouti

 2. Sorting machines

 IJN signal intelligence
IJN tried decipher for the first time in WWI. Warships Ibuki and Hirado cooperated with RN to chase the famous cruiser Emden of Germany in the Indian Ocean. They also escorted transports to carry troops of Australlia and Newzeeland. Then Ibuki tried decipher of RN. By the way, Deutsche Marine modern Emden helped a merchant ship of Nippon Yusen in Somalia. Nakajima worte that Japan broke diplomatic codes of UK and US in Geneve Meeting of 1927.[1] Did UK use wireless telegrams? Or Japan got telegrams illegal method, didn't she?

 IJA cryptanalysist, Kamaga
Qsort is a sorting function of C programming language. Sort is the basic information processing to analyze things. IJA bought 3 cipher machines in Sweden. Atache Onodera sent them to Germany. They were sent in U511 or U180. Kamaga ( 1917-2003 ) was an intelligence officer of IJA, who broke US cipher written in M-209 in the end of the war.[2] As IJA did not have statics machines, Kamaga, cryptanalysist, tried operating Hollerith machines of Daiichi and Nihon life insurance companies under requisition by government.[4] He asked for using statics machines installed under ground floor of Daiichi life insurance Building in Tokyo. But both companies refused. Kamaga organized a project to analyse encryption in 1943.[7] The project leader was famous mathematician, Takagi Teiji.[12] IJA and IJN could not cooperate with each other, as UK made effort to decipher Enigma. By the way GHQ of US army used the building of it for controlling Japanese govermnment in September 1945.[9] GHQ called Kamaga and tested whether he could read US Army encrption or not in 1949.[8] How did Kamaga break US Army M-209 codes without sorting machines?
Punch card machinesSorting machine
The right photo shows a sorting machine of US Goverment in 1920s. The left photo shows punching job of US Army in 1940s.[3]

During the Pacific War, Japan could not import PCS ( Punch Card System ) at all. PCS was made in US those days. Marshall of US said, "I cannot do my own bussiness busy reading decipherd diplomatic messages of Japan everyday".[5] Even Germany imported these machines from US. IJN ordered Fujitsu relayed mutiplier and divider circuit for decoding of cipher in 1943.[6] But Punch card production was a bottle neck of the analyser. Newspapers companies always troubled purchase of paper itself under controlled economy. And I suppose paper companies of Japan could not product uniform and standarized cards a lot at then.

USN analyzer for decrption by IBM & Eastman
USN Intelligence had already been trying decrption in 30s and might use sorting machines. IJN should study cipher like IJA at least and bring up a few signal intelligence officers with a simple inexpensive sorting machine. I remember punch cards were not curved at all but simply plain, when I was a student user of 80 column cards for computing.

US and UK had much interest in decipher and invested much money during WWII. Decipher was a part of intelligence activity. UK had invested Babbage's computing machine in 1822.

 Electronic computers
NCR began to make US Bombe for USN in 1942. Tommy Flowers designed Colossus Mark I which worked at Bletchley Park in February 1944. Relayed computer MARK I worked in 1944. Turing studied ACE ( Automatic Computing Engine ) in National Physical Laboratory in 1945.[14] John von Neumann advocated EDVAC ( Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer ) in 1945. John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert made ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ) which had 18,000 tubes in 1946. Remington Rand, the producers of UNIVAC machines, got their start by buying the Eckert Mauchly Computer Corporation in 1950. Eckert and Mauchly made commercial UNIVAC ( Universal Automatic Computer ) in 1951.[13] IBM announced 650 in 1953. 650 has reliable tubes and 2,000 words memory of magnetic drum, and was rentaled for $6,000 a month. IBM announced 705 in 1955 and 704 in 1956.

JNR ( Japanese National Railways ) worked MARS-1 ( Magnetic-electric Automatic Reservation System 1) in January 1960.

 IBM industry spy incident
Employees of Hitachi and Mitsubishi were arrested in US by a FBI trap in June 1986.[15] IBM cooperated with the arrest and investigation. Most of Japanese computer makers producted IBM compatible machines under no license of IBM. Software of IBM machines were spread in domestic industries. The last commercial conflict of Fujitsu and IBM was till 1988. While NEC developed no IBM compatible machines, NEC's super computing machies overwhelmed US Cray Research.
 Japanese processing
NEC also developed no IBM compatible PCAT machine, but adopted Microsoft's OS. This was very popular among Japanese business fields.[10] The V30 CPU architecture of NEC is the same 8086 of Intel. Microsoft developed Shift JIS code for Japanese character set. The 80s was gold age of NEC. Marketing strategy for personal computers of NEC was right in Japan. But closed dominant NEC dos was replaced by open IBM DOS/V with Windows 3.1 in later.[11] I suppose that the DOS/V accelated study for linguastic Japanese in US etc. Cryptanalysts of NSA may use DOS/V to read or write Japanese. But DOS/V keybord assignment of symbols is not the same of US keybord. I felt frustrated. Personal computers took parts of mini computer, office computer and work station.

Innovation is in favor of freedom, no control of dominance.

[1] Nakajima, p252-253
[2] Kamaga
[3] Punched Card Tabulating Machines
[4] Hollerith
[5] Tsuji, p99
[6] Computer_ka 80 nen (Computer_ka80nen.pdf)
[7] Tsujii, p141
[8] Tsujii, p142
[9] Seijyoki ga mitumeta sengo
[10] NEC PC-9801
[11] DOS/V
[12] Nihonjin Sugakusha no Senji Kenkyuu
[13] Hull & Day, p213
[14] Architecture niyoru computer gijyutu nokeitou-ka no kentou
[15] IBM sangyo spy jiken

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