Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific|
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Cipher is one of the most important technique of intelligence to have securities or secrets from enemies or others. But Japanese Government ciphers always were broken by the US. Why do Japanese bureaucrats were fools to protect her nation's top secrets? I have read a few books about intelligence war articles. Japansese people including bureaucrats think who cheats someone is wrong, while the world commons thinks cheated one is a fool. Anyway, the US deciphered Japanese encryption well, as Japanese experts did not know the fact at all. Even now, Japanese diplomatic codes are deciphered by US, China and Russia. So Japanese Government always will fail tough negotiations with US, China and Russia.
Secretary of Queen Elizabeth, Walsingham(1532-1590) had hired 53 agents in the Continent. He got a letter of plan conquering England in Netherlands. So He monitored Mary. His cryptologist read Mary's ciphered letters in 1588. John Wallis(1616-1703) broke ciphered messages of Louis 14th.|
I watched DVD of 'Elizabeth' before. The actor of Walsingham was nice. I also watched 'Golden Age' recently. I understood meaning of words secretary, chamber and cabinet in the films. A map was drawn in a floor of her chamber. America was not drwan in the map yet. The wealth of America occurred trading with China. Sooner Western world overwhelmed China with military and industrial revolution in the conflict of Europe nations.
Walsingham had supper with his wife and daughter. He wore a gogerous kippa. The second movie of 'Elizabeth' was less impressed by Elizabeth's maid Beth and her lover Walter. But this time Elizabeth and Beth's dresses looked clear and beautiful. The lace of the dresses are interesting because we have not accepted lace till Meiji era. The movie shows Elizabeth in Curch with high skewed angle of camera. I remember film of marrige of Princess Ann. The film impressed the ceremony with high angled camera.
Elizabeth declared war with Spain. She wore armor and made a speech for troops of England. Is it true? She did not say in the movie, 'God bless you'. Or script of Japanese ignored, didn't it? President Bush said the word, when US broke Iraq War. Phillip II prayed and Elizabeth did not pray before her private altar in the movie. I felt it a sense of comming modern age.
Commdore Perry gave a gift of telegram machine Bakufu ( Government ) in the end of Edo era. The age of telegram began. Japan read ciphered diplomatic telegram of Qing, when Japan and Qing negotiated peace after Japanese-Qing War.
IJA invited intelligence officer of Poland to learn how to decipher Russian cipher in 1923. IJA officer and cryptanalysts, Kamaga deciphered M-209 machine codes in the end of the Pacific War.
US official might stole copy of punctuation codes of diplomatic cipher in New York Embassy in 1939. An individual has been able to use any ciphers in Japan, although study of cipher was banned for a short time after the Pacific War.
George Washington's agent used 800 ciphered usage. USN had used cipher basic method that Jefferson invented till WWII.
Crack of MOFA angou(Purple)
Crack of IJN D-angou(JN-25)
Signal intelligence after 30s
Russian politician §¢§Ö§Ù§à§Ò§â§Ñ§Ù§à§Ó(Beruzorazohu), be loved by Zar, said to Ambassdor Awano just before breaking the Japanese-Russo War, "You have changed my name." This meant Japan changed his name an abbreviated code to shorten telegram ciphers. Russia broke diplomatic cipher of Japan, when Japan and Russia negotiated peace after Japanese-Russo War at Portsmouth. So Witte might negotiate better than Komura. Witte said to Awano after the meetin at Portsmouth, "It seems to other nations cipher of Japanese government is the same of plain text." But I think Japan telegramed between Tokyo and Portmath by All Red Route in wire that UK built in 1902. Only UK was an allied power of Japan in those days. How Russia stole encrypted diplomatic wired telegram of Japan? Japan made wired telegram network in islands between Korea and Kyushu just before the battle of the Japan Sea. IJN winned in the effort of wireless telegram and GF(Grand Fleet) could communicate with Japan mainland by wire. MOFA of Japan did not learn the fact of cracking after the Washington treaty.|
Russia-jin no Sei
German Max Clausen of a communist sent ciphered messages in English from Tokyo to Moscow that Japan would invade Indochina not Russia. They used key from German empire statics yearbook of 1935. He assembled wireless transmitter.
Intelligence of Russia might be the most excellent among powers. GPU or KGB knew secrets of Japanese war plan, UK diplomatic policy and US war technologies. Certainly Russia and US are nations that bosses of KGB or CIA were President of their nations. Japanese government failed to know secrets of US nuke and Russian war plan. So a lot of Japanese people died at a loss.
|ENIAC and Bombe|
I knew ENIAC in an electronics handy book at first. It said, 'the first programmed electronic computing machine in the world'. Several years later, I knew Turing Machine in a programming book, written in English originally. Alan Turing(1912-1954) worked at Bletchley Park to break enemy cipher and suceeded. The machine was called Bombe.|
|Signal intelligence of powers and MOFA of Japan|
|Germany broke cipher of MOFA completely at first which was called Purple in US. Germany warnmed Ambassador Oshima that allied nations read codes of MOFA in a polite way on Apr 1941. Pherhaps Germany was afraid that her military information leaked via MOFA. US used a lot of punch card machines to sort codes. Germany and Japan had imported the machines from US. How Germany and Russia could break Purple without machines?|
|IJN code was broken, so the battle of Midway and kill of Yamamo occurred. Once Genda said, 'There is no way to win with the kill of Yamamoto because of cracking IJN cipher'. MOFA and IJN had not made effort to improve how to handle cipher machines because they did not mind securities of Japan. They were much busier in their domestic ministris' rights to confront IJA. Japanese embassy of Spain got a faint information of US nucler delopment, but cracking of ciphers occurred deaths of agent in the US.|
I count up books on my shelves about intelligence and cipher.
Japan fought only information. Leaders of IJA and IJN often ignored opinion of intelligence section. Only operation section of IJA and IJN planned the war. How united organization did not always work well?
 Tsuji p.67-68
 Usami Sadamitsu(1489-1564)
 Kippenhahn p.31-33, p.63
 Jefferson disk
 Uesugi Kenshin (1530-1578)
 Nakajima p.256
 Ango Kaidoku Sidosha no Syouti
|2. Sorting machines|
|IJN signal intelligence|
IJN tried decipher for the first time in WWI. Warships Ibuki and Hirado cooperated with RN to chase the famous cruiser Emden of Germany in the Indian Ocean. They also escorted transports to carry troops of Australlia and Newzeeland. Then Ibuki tried decipher of RN. By the way, Deutsche Marine modern Emden helped a merchant ship of Nippon Yusen in Somalia. Nakajima worte that Japan broke diplomatic codes of UK and US in Geneve Meeting of 1927. Did UK use wireless telegrams? Or Japan got telegrams illegal method, didn't she?|
|IJA cryptanalysist, Kamaga|
During the Pacific War, Japan could not import PCS ( Punch Card System ) at all. PCS was made in US those days. Marshall of US said, "I cannot do my own bussiness busy reading decipherd diplomatic messages of Japan everyday". Even Germany imported these machines from US. IJN ordered Fujitsu relayed mutiplier and divider circuit for decoding of cipher in 1943. But Punch card production was a bottle neck of the analyser. Newspapers companies always troubled purchase of paper itself under controlled economy. And I suppose paper companies of Japan could not product uniform and standarized cards a lot at then.
US and UK had much interest in decipher and invested much money during WWII. Decipher was a part of intelligence activity. UK had invested Babbage's computing machine in 1822.
NCR began to make US Bombe for USN in 1942. Tommy Flowers designed Colossus Mark I which worked at Bletchley Park in February 1944. Relayed computer MARK I worked in 1944. Turing studied ACE ( Automatic Computing Engine ) in National Physical Laboratory in 1945. John von Neumann advocated EDVAC ( Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer ) in 1945. John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert made ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ) which had 18,000 tubes in 1946. Remington Rand, the producers of UNIVAC machines, got their start by buying the Eckert Mauchly Computer Corporation in 1950. Eckert and Mauchly made commercial UNIVAC ( Universal Automatic Computer ) in 1951. IBM announced 650 in 1953. 650 has reliable tubes and 2,000 words memory of magnetic drum, and was rentaled for $6,000 a month. IBM announced 705 in 1955 and 704 in 1956.
JNR ( Japanese National Railways ) worked MARS-1 ( Magnetic-electric Automatic Reservation System 1) in January 1960.
|IBM industry spy incident|
|Employees of Hitachi and Mitsubishi were arrested in US by a FBI trap in June 1986. IBM cooperated with the arrest and investigation. Most of Japanese computer makers producted IBM compatible machines under no license of IBM. Software of IBM machines were spread in domestic industries. The last commercial conflict of Fujitsu and IBM was till 1988. While NEC developed no IBM compatible machines, NEC's super computing machies overwhelmed US Cray Research.|
NEC also developed no IBM compatible PCAT machine, but adopted Microsoft's OS. This was very popular among Japanese business fields. The V30 CPU architecture of NEC is the same 8086 of Intel. Microsoft developed Shift JIS code for Japanese character set. The 80s was gold age of NEC. Marketing strategy for personal computers of NEC was right in Japan. But closed dominant NEC dos was replaced by open IBM DOS/V with Windows 3.1 in later. I suppose that the DOS/V accelated study for linguastic Japanese in US etc. Cryptanalysts of NSA may use DOS/V to read or write Japanese. But DOS/V keybord assignment of symbols is not the same of US keybord. I felt frustrated. Personal computers took parts of mini computer, office computer and work station.
Innovation is in favor of freedom, no control of dominance.
 Nakajima, p252-253
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