Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific
This page contains kanji.
Zipper and sword
Patton I wore pants having no fastener but buttons, when a little boy. In those days all the boys in Japan watched on TV drama 'Combat', in which officers wore jackets with zippers. The photo shows General Patton wearing such a jacket. Growing up, the fasteners became very popular. All of my winter overcoats attached such fasteners and I wore gym uniforms with a fastener in junior and high school. I think the fastener is one of the great US inventions.
Nihon no taisou-fuku

The photo shows Prown Prince wore no button IJN style uniform of Peers School in his childhood on Aug 1945. The article writes that Crown Prince does trainning of handling swords. His father Hirohito always wore a sword then.

When Commdore Pery came to Kanagawa, some people in Edo were very curious about buttons and wanted them. Some US people exchanged buttons for something. I suppose this is the first commercial trade between Japanese people and US people. After half a century, Japan exported buttons in Europe.
Korekawa p.81

Body bag
Recently it happened to watch on TV, the documentary was about a US Army ER in Bagdad. After curring a heavily hurt soldier, a medic closed a fasener of a bag which contained the body of the soldier, it was impressive to me. I suppose bodies are enveloped in cloth or blankets with no fasteners even now in Japan.

Inch threads
Bolt is another kind of fasteners. Japan knew the screw while copying plugs of guns in 16th century. Japan imported modern screw manufacturing machines from UK in 19th century. So Japanese people began to make inch threads. IJA and IJN had thread standard separately, and main thread standard of aircraft engine was not unified until 1941. I asked Ogawa Seik about thread of a glow plug. He said, 'We had sold taps for working engine heads before. It is 1/4-32'. I asked a screw shop for a stock of the nuts. Sales did not know standard of UNEF at all. I wonder a car repair shop demands 500yen($4) for an inch nut or bolt. A Mini of UK hobbist worried about inch screws.
Eikoku-sha wo seikatu ni toriiretemitara

 Culture rather than military
Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific
This page contains kanji characters.
 Walls of small house in Tokyo
bamboo fall
Bamboo fenceFall wall
When I walked around towns of Tokyo, it was strange to see walls around too small houses. I knew common people were prohibited to live in a house which had walls and a gate in Edo era. Walls were allowed only ruling class Samurai before. Concept of upper and lower sticks to mind of people in Tokyo, Mikado's walls stand up on for Shogun now. Every one built walls like samurai in Meiji era later. Prime minister of Japan lives in Kantei where is not around walls as well as UK. Both prime ministers are inaugurated by Mikado or King.

Bamboo grows well in the west of Japan. To see bamboo growing was curious for me, because I grew up in Hokkaido. Once Japan exported bamboo crafts, lantern, fan, skiing poles which were used in skiing troops of Finland etc.
Mussashi Edo-jyou

A Japanese professor of economics said, "There is four divisions of society at University of Tokyo. Law, medicine are upper. Economics, engineering are lower."

Certainly I was disappointed to Mr. Fukui's scandal of the Bank of Japan. A lots of Japanese professors have studied economics more than 100 years. Laurentzs of Nobel Prize in economics are Americans this year again.
Mr. Fukui's scandal

Money of the Wall Street broke challanging Germany, Japan and Soviet. But it seems their method has not worked in China and Vietnam well. If Leaders of Japan analyzed her economy in 1930s, the catastrophy would not bring out in 15 years later.

Zhongnanhai Walls
Han of China built police to govern farmers, the police had around walls. Bureaucrats and troops lived in the police, The bureaucrats collected taxes. China continues to distinguish people between city and village even now. Kremlin means walls originally. Leaders of China lives in walls, as governers did once upon a time. Now, this place is completely around walls.

2 succesive top leaders of China are from ( �µ��� ) now. ( �븵��, ����, Ϸ��, ���) and ����� also were all from here. It is interesting. Principle of the nation is different from her outsiders ( �� ). US and other nations will always worry her politics in confused relations.

 National flag
National flag at school
A mast and gymsPoles of Kantei
I lost a driving way to a high school once. My son told me to find a national flag. Certainly public schools put up the Japanese national flag high. I do not when they began to put up high. A photo shows that a shool put up it high and do gyms. The pole was a mast of the glorious battleship Mikasa of the Japan Sea Battle. Its photo might be taken after 1923, because the Mikasa was out of duty list in 1923. Most of shools have a pole on a top of its building. It has been usual that elementary schools display thousand nations flags in gyms.

However, the Kantei of Japan shows it low, and lower than the White House. And commons of Japan do not show our national flag, though we showed it on a natioanl holiday in 60s to 70s. While schools have been eager to build higher flag-towers for education now.
the White House

Education in an easy way
It reminds me of a holy facility in shools all over Japan. The ministry of education had tried to control mind of boys since Meiji era. At last IJN and IJA beaucrats and Education Ministry could bring up soldiers for suicide attacks. Teachers of Japan have liked uniform learning and training for a long time. It seems that this is an easier way for them to control boys in school. Teachers had better learn Fukuzawa's and Katsu's thought. Some teachers praised Great Leap Forward in China and Marxism when I was in high school. As a result, very few radical students appeared. And some of them became terrorists rather than revolutionalists. To teach was to propanga a dogma in Japan. I suppose Japanese teachers do respect authority in all times even now. Or we should change ourselves, should not we? Japanese people are uniform under freedom of individuals, while Chinese people are individual under control of rulers.
Great Leap Forward

Portraits' bankThe highest flag tower

The left photo shows a proof of uniform controlled education. A small bank belonged to an elementary shool in Okinawa which contained photos of Mikado and a bible of Education ministry. Boys and girls had to bow it every passing. Teachers taught boys to be good soldiers for Mikado eager and eager. After the Pacific War, GHQ banned such education, teachers easily obeyed the order through Education Ministry. Japanese teachers always did respect to authority of Education Ministry. I remember climbing up it to play with other kids. I did not know it holy those days. Simply teachers have taught boys under the authority since 1868. They had no will either Mikado or GHQ. I said 'dogmatic' teachers in my high school days. The central dogma is Confucianism. The Confucianism is stick to our life, as it were air. IJN assigned commanders under Confucianism during the Pacifc War. USN was more efficient and reasonable for controlling the organization. How does weak confucian navy win against strong pragmatic navy?

People of Japan's neighbor have to show photos of her leaders at their home, I hear. The education of the nation may be extremely uniform and controlled as Japan did. The flag tower of the nation is the highest in the world. Once the naion was governed by the most Confucianism in the world.


Japanese government sent students to China to learn her civilization. These are famous persons in history of Japan.

Otherwise a lot of Chinese students came to Japan and learned modernization of Japan. Sonbun, Chiang Kai-shek and Zhou Enlai were famous among them. Sun Wen stayed here.

Japanese students went to China
NameKanjiBirth year/placeDeath year/place
Abe no Nakamaro-698 Yamato770 Choan
Kibi no Makibi-695775
Saicho-767 Oumi822 Hieizan
Kukai-774 Sanuki835 Koyasan
Engyo�߹�799 Kyoto852
Ennin�߿�794 Shimotuke864
Eun�ñ�798 Yamashiro869
Enchin����814 Sanuki89
Syuei����809 Kyoto884
Eisai-1141 Kibi1215 Kamakura or Kyoto
Dogen-1200 Kyoto1253 Kyoto
Sesson Yubai��¼ͧ��12901347
Sesyu-1420 Bicyu1502
Kian Geiju�˰ø���14271508
Priests wished securities of land and people. They thought mandala, however noble people of Japan did not understand it.

Enchin went and came back by a merchant ship

In the end of Heian era, noble clans believed in amida-nyorai and saiho-jyodo. Sugawara no Michizane proposed not to send Imperial embassies to China in 894, because of Tang's domestic confusion, official expendture, and merchantizing route between Korea and Japan. In later, priests studied in private mission. Syuei was Todaiji-betto, Toji-nicyojya
amida-nyorai and saiho-jyodo

Chinese priests thought deep and grew up zen, a kind of metaphysics. Dogen purified zen in Japanese simplified style, therefore his thought was very diffcult for me to understand. Heidegger knew Dogen's 'Uji' in 1920s. I prefer Heigegger's 'Sein und Zeit'.

 Western in Japan

Notable Western in Japan
NameMother tongueBirth — Death
Francisco de XavierPortugueseApr 7, 1506 - Dec 3, 1552
Luis Frois1532 -July 8, 1597
Engelbert KaempferGermanSep 16, 1651 - Nov 2, 1716
Matthew Calbraith PerryEnglishApril 10, 1794 - Mar 4, 1858
Philipp Franz von SieboldFeb 17, 1796 - Oct 18, 1866
William S. ClarkEnglishJul 31, 1826 - Mar 9, 1886
Gottfried WagenerJul 5, 1831 - Nov 8, 1892
Edmund MorelNov 11, 1841 - Sep 23, 1871
Patrick Lafcadio HearnJun 27, 1850 - Sep 26, 1904
Frank Lloyd WrightJun 8, 1867 - Apr 9, 1959
Douglas MacArthurEnglishJan 26, 1880 - Apr 5, 1964
Helen Adams KellerEnglishJun 27, 1880 - June 1, 1968
William Merrell VoriesEnglishOct 28, 1880 - May 7, 1964
Eugen HerrigelMar 20, 1884 - Apr 18, 1955
Ruth BenedictEnglishJun 5, 1887 - Sep 17, 1948
Maximilian KolbePolishJan 8, 1894����- Aug 14, 1941
William Edwards DemingEnglishOct 14, 1900 - Dec 20, 1993
Edwin Oldfather ReischauerEnglishOct 15, 1910 - Sep 1, 1990
Edward George SeidenstickerEnglishFeb 11, 1921 - Aug 26, 2007
The table shows notable Western persons who came and stayed Japan. Portuguese and Spanish people came to Japan in the 16th century at first. Next Netherlandish people came, after Netherlands was independent from Spain. Officially Government allowed to trade Netherlands and China only in Edo era almost 250 years. So German people came here, who could speak Netherlandish. A few skillful engineers and schloras who help Japan modernize in Meiji era. They were British, French, American etc. Although Ruth Benedict did not stay Japan at all, she analyzied Japanese society. I was taught her analysis in junior-high and high shool some times, I have not read her book yet. Defeated by US in the Pacific War, new Japanese managers of comanies learned OR and QC (Quality Control) well from US extrodinaly eager.

I found that Douglas MacArthur, Helen Adams Keller and William Merrell Vories were born the same year in 1880. They were 24 years old, when the Japanese-Russo War was ceased.


Interior Ministry of Japan banned selling Jazz records and playing Jazz as enemy music in 1943. Enemy words were translated into other words, for example rekodo(record)=onban. It was funny to rename record brands. Ministry of Education banned to teach English in middle school.
  • Polydor -> Daitoa(���찡)
  • Colombia -> Nicchiku
  • King -> Fuji(�ٻ�)
  • Victor -> NihonOnkyo(���ܲ���)

Otherwise Japan did not ban Chinese songs, though both nations had been at war for 5 yeas. A Chinese composer made a song, titled Itu no hi ka kimi kaeru(When will you come home, ����������), was a big hit in Japan in 1940. Chiang Kaishek troop sang the tune on leaving for Taiwan, I heard. Both of Japanese and Chinese people loved it each other as Lili Marleen in the West.
Itunohi ka kimi kaeru, ����������)
Lili Marleen

Why did not Government ban a Chinese song but Jazz music and English words? Japan accepted Chinese culture for 500 years. But American culture was less than 100 years. It reminds me of ultra nationalism in 19th century. Spirits of bureaucrats were conservative same as in Edo era at the Pacific War. They disliked Western thought and adopted Western technologies only. Leaders of Japan forgot international law too, when Japan broke the Pacific War. Governers were afraid that commons knew Western thought. And commons did not believe government and its bureaucats. Bureaucrats ignored spirits of confidence, cooperation and love among societies of Japan. They thought people were uncivilized pesants, workers and soldiers only.

On the contrary, US were busy with learning Japanese for intelligence war. US bureaucrats were reasonable.

Jazz became very popular. Sometimes we listen to Jazz in BGM of Japanese TV drama or something. A TV program of Japan uses Blue note records now.

Culture rather than military

Newspapers told that we had better persuit culture than military power after the Pacific War. The word of culture, bunka (ʸ��) became a symbol of peace. Culture knife, 'bunka bouchou' (ʸ������), culture pan, 'bunka nabe' (ʸ����), culture house, 'bunka jutaku' (ʸ������) and culture broadcast, 'bunka housou', (ʸ������) appeared. The word 'culture' meaned simply non Japanese style for sale, as it were western or new taste. The culture broadcast was on air in 1953. It has a program titled culture restaurant, 'bunka shokudo', (ʸ����Ʋ).
Hamamatsu-cho 1 chome bunka shokudo
bunka jyutaku
bunkanabe/kame jirushi
santoku bunka bouchou

Why did ridiculous appearance happen? Japanese people remembered the modernization of Meiji. So we must do the 2nd civilization, 'bumei kaika' (ʸ������) of Japan like Meiji Restoration. We stopped 'fukoku kyouhei' (�ٹ�ʼ) on peace this time. We found military power gave no wealth. We also changed our nation name, dai nippon teikoku (Great Japanese Empire) into simple Nihon koku (Japan). By the way Japan called bunka (ʸ��) a peoriod of 1804 and 1807 year.
Empire of Japan

Chinese civilization
Civilization boarding in China
Slogan in NanjinVolunteers for regulating
Japan's neghibor began Great Leap Forward (������) after the Civil War in 1958 to 1961 at first. This policy did not work well. And the Cultural Revolution (ʸ�����̿��with violence in 1965 to 1976. Economic reform (���׳���) is under way since 1976. China could not develope like Russia. After all, it took almost 20 years to begin the reform in China. I think simply that China is a big country and China is a country of 'bun' (ʸ). Originally Japanese people expressed the word, bunka and bumei using kanji characters. I think China governed people by bun. Empeors must always read a lots of reports everyday. Bureaucrats wrote tremendous bun. The state was governed by bun. Japan adopted the system in Nara era, but it failed. 1,000 years later, Japan adopted alike the system mixed with Western law. So Education Ministry is 'monbu sho' (ʸ����) even now. Japan is also a country of 'bun' (ʸ). Chinese passengers are in line. They call it civilization boarding (ʸ�����) in a Olympic year campaign. Japan calls it 'seiretu jyosha' (������). I was irritated on boarding a train or subway, when I moved to Kansai from Kanto. Because people of Osaka are not in line on boarding. Are people of Beijin in line, though people of Nanjin are not?
Great Leap Forward
Wasei kango

China, Korea and Japan expressed four kanji letters in propaganda for a long time. Korea abolished kanji in 1970. China, Japan and Taiwan adopt kanji to express documents of government in the world. Chinese people created a lots of 4 kanji phrase for slogans and movements. Japan copied the way to creat slogans. The both nations created 4-letter-phrase in the propaganda to modernize hers or control her peoples.

Protest Meeting [���Ľ���]
Protest in Okinawa
Okinawa angered that USN did not pass 3 crime suspects to Japanese police and held protest meeting in Okinawa in 1995.[3] A newspaper of Okinawa wrote an opinion on 22 October 1995. We read [�赯���] in the back screen of the meeting.
Omoiyari Yosan

Anti American movement [ȿ��Ʈ��]
US had governed Okinawa since Nimitz's declare on 26 Marcch 1945. Newspapers called [��������]. We often see [�Ʒ�����] in articles of Okinawa issue [��������]. US controlled mail in Okinawa till 1972.[2]��USN holds naval bases in Guam, Japan, Korea, Philippines[1], and Singapore now.

How did China and Japan responded, when powers came? Powers enforced us trade or commerce with arms. Powers called it gunboat diplomacy [ˤ�ϳ���]. The diplomatic issue changed in the form of domestic issue. Local government used the issue to take part in government. Their movement was [º��ڷ��]. Goverment responded in the form of [�������]. Meiji Government gave up ڷ�� at once. Although Government advocated [ʸ������], [�ٹ�ʼ] and [��������] to modernize Japan, governers wanted to control people with status quo like Edo era. So they advocated [�º��κ�] not to refer [��ͳ̱��] or [̱����]. Goverment agreed to open [���IJ�]. Goverment had to pass budget under [������ˡ], though [ʼ���縢] belonged to Mikado as well as King in UK. Fukuzawa Yukichi was disappointed of Korean revolution, when ��̶� was asassinated. He gave up modernizing Japan, Korea and China each other. He advocated [æ������]. UK government got right to declare war from King before WWI, some lawmakers of Hatoyama Ichiro etc made use of [���㸢����] to get government. Democratic government had to proclaim [������ħ]. [ʸ�����] Hatoyama fired a famous law professor in Kyoto Imperial University to omit [��ͳ���]. Japan robbed words from commons. [�����Ⱥ�] governmed Japan for 20 years at last. Japan expanded [�ü츢��] in Kanto [����Ⱦ��] and occurred [��������], [�̻ٻ���] and [�������].

China adopted [��̳��ư] and [��������] after defeat of war on UK. In the conflict Chinese bureaucrats knew [�����ˡ]. China is one of nations in the world. Farmers were tired of heavy tax. Some people revolted and took part in [��ʿŷ��]. [���δ���] could not protect logistic line to Korea because of [Ϣ�����]. [��ˡ��ư] failed, but [��������] movement occurred. When Qing collapsed, local warlords were independent and foreign intervention occurred. Complicated conflict lasted for a long time. It was usual in Chinese history. Japan intervened and organized two or three puppet governments for 15 years. Japan was one of �� for her long history. [��̩���] is a key factor in China. The two [��̱��] and [������] survived in the conflict. The two armed parties ceased fires twice. They called it [�񶦹��].

 After the Pacific war and the Civil war
Japan lost one thirds of her territoy after the Pacific War. US reformed Japanese military as Stimson referred to Japanese issue. Japan adopted [ʿ�·�ˡ] and [���ϲ���]. US knew that poor pesants were resources of soldiers and military bureaucrats controlled troops behind Mikado. US hoped that Japan would not intervene Korea and China by arms any more. Without spending military expenditure, Japan borrowed much money from IMF system and invested manufacturing industries and infrastructure. Japanese companies made products in the motto of [����û��]. Japan showed high economic grow. We called it [������Ĺ]. Japan exported toys, warehouse, textile, electronic appliance and cars to US. The sharp increase occurred [�ǰ��໤]. The rate of currency was high from ¥360 to ¥80 per $. Japanese security and imports of food and oil depends on [���ư���]. Without free voyage, Japanese people cannot be alive. Without sea power, merchant ships cannot run on peace. Government tried [��������], and [��ͭŴƻ], [���Ÿ���] and [͹������] were dominant companies. The Diet has tried [��������], but it will takes 20 or 24 years at least to bring up leaders of new law makers because of favor of olds in commons. It is funny that old law makers over 60 years old call for [ʿ���ݿ�].

Chinese Communist Party won the Civil war after the WWII. They tried a copied Russian [�ײ�к�] and built [��̱����]. We learned how the Chinese farmers comunity is splendid from high school teachers and newspapers. But the Japanese farmers disliked the style completey. I think they wanted to have farming right simply. The right was given by US. Japanese people learned that newspapers advocated the Japanese-Sino war. Teachers taught us to be soldiers and die for [�Ĺ�], though they did not die for Mikado's land in the Pacific war at all. Only one thirds agreed with socialism in general elections. [��ͳ̱����] always won the general elections under negative campaigns of newspapers and intellectuals. [1] Kichi heisa to sai-shiyou
[2] Okinawa kitte
[3] Okinawan rape incident

English-Japanese dictionary

I always access an Japanese-English dictionary of internet. I don't understand 'article', 'preposition' well, though I learned English in junior-high and high school hard. So I sometimes read my English-Japanese dictionaries. One is old Kenkyusha's that was published in 1968. The other is Taishukan's. I found that they interest me to compare both example sentences.

English-Japanese dictionaries
bodya body of lawsthe body of a speech
The English are a law-abiding people.England's armed intervention
gununder the gun(s)Gun Control Act of 1968
horsemount[ride] the high horseget on one's horse
nationa nation without a country
Jews are people, not a nation,
Russians are a nation, but not a single nation.
the Jewish nation
outfar out at seaThe fishing boats are 5km out.
rightAll right!It's time to leave, all right, but the bus hasn't come yet.
surrendersurrender of a fugitivethe surrender of the fortress
timeThere is[I have] no time to lose.Give me time to try again.
warWar often breaks out without warning.Supposing War broke out, what would you do?
waterjump in(to) the waterThe child had fallen in the water
all right : I knew the phrase 'all right' in a boy at first. A woman bus condcutor often called the pharse to a bus driver, when he drove it backward. An IJN bombardier called yousoro, when a pilot flew a bomber to a target.
work like a horse : Ouini[genkini chujituni] hataraku Kenkyusha, basha-uma no youni[genkini] hataraku Daishukan

 Japanese people's leisure nowdays
Family's expenditure
Japanese desire for leisure
Japanese families' expenditure had decreased at the peak of ¥333,840 since 1994 gradually. The table shows that ratios of expentitures in 1994 and 2004.[2] The total expenditure had decreased ¥29,637 (8.9%) for 10 years. Communication, Healthcare and Power increased 3.1%, 1.1% and 1.0% each, because the families began to use mobile phones and connect PCs with internet. Although one thirds of Japanese people have wanted to spend leisure[3], the actual expenditure for amusement and hobby has not increased yet. Japanese people felt affluent before 1997, but the ratio of feeling affluent reversed after 1998.[4]

Family expenditure in 1994 and 2004 [%]

Japanese leisure population
How Japanese people spened their free time? The table shows leisure ranking in 2007, 2008 and 2009.[1][4] Playing cards, othello, karuta, hanafuda and video game, going on picnic and concert increased population more than 40% compared with last year. The red items ranked up yearly.
Japanese leisure population [unit: 10 thousand]
1dining outdining out7,370driving6,740+31.1%
3drivingdriving5,140dining out6,370+23.9%
5rental videoPC4,470CD, FM, music5,150+30.1%
6lotterykaraoke4,430zoo, auarium5,040+25.1%
7zoo, auariumrental video4,400rental video5,010+13.9%
9cinemazoo, auarium4,030lottery4,950+8.6%
10CD, FM, musicCD, FM, music3,960video game4,720+43.0%
11bar, pubbar, pub3,310cards, othello4,440+52.6%
12video gamevideo game3,300gardening4,030+23.6%
14amusement parkcards, othello2,910concert3,560+47.1%
15cards, othelloamusement park2,780bar, pub3,400+2.7%
17bowlingpicnic2,470amusement park3,160+13.7%
18concertconcert2,420photo production3,120?
19come homebowling2,350exhibition3,070?
20joggingcome home2,340excercise2,950?

Japanese monetary leisure market
Japanese monetary leisure market has shrunk since 1996. Although the leisure marked had shrunk at -1.40% through 1996 to 2002 yearly, it decreased -4.56% in 2009. Japanese men favored nomu (alcohol), utu (gamble) and kau (fuzoku), as one has told for a kong time. Most popular gambles are pachinko and horse race in Japan. The markets were ¥21,065 (30.3%) and 3,328 (4.8%) billion each in 2009.[6][8] Once Japanese men played sexual services with women. The market was ¥5,688.4 billion. The value might be written in a book by Kadokura.[7] The total of three amusement market was ¥30,081 billion. Therefore the rest of amusement market was ¥39,471 billion.

Monetary leisure market averaging yealy increase ratio
Billion ¥90,90783,22981,27279,17472,87669,552
Incease ratio--1.40%-1.2%-1.29%-3.98%-4.56%

Male alcohol morbidity ratio
QTY [L]<8<10<12<15<15<0.6
USN banned to drink alcohl in warships. RN and IJN permitted their sailors to drink once in a week. So my father exchanged alchohl with other sailor's sweets, when he was an IJN sailor. IJN high officers could drink freely in warships. How does the nations have alcohl morbidity now? WHO published alcohl dosage in nations in 2011.[5] Malaysia shows high morbidity in spite of a little dosage. My two uncles were in hospital because of alcohl morbidity in Hokkaido, when I was young. My father usually did not drink alcohl at home. He drank a little on new year, spring and autum festival and obon. I drink a small glass of wine on my birthday and Christmas, as my wife recomends to do.

Cars, Magazines and Cosmetics
Cars unit: 10 thousand
Japanese auto market shrank rapid. I calculated the decrease ratios. Sale of magazine market was at peak in 1996-97. It decreased to 75% in 2007. The yearly decrease was 2.5%. Cosmetics market increased gradually, and the market is ¥2,300-2,400 billion.

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