| Chinese governers, beaucrats and revolutionalists|
Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific|
This page contains Japanese kanji.
| Kakyo ( ²Êµó )|
China has long history of bureaucracy. Local beaucrats governed people severe with country squires. Chinese and Korean student learned Analects very hard to be bureaucrats. Both governments selected them by test how they learned Analects. All the dynasties of China always collapsed because of revolt of farmers. Secret party made important roll to build next dynasty. Chinese Communist Party is one of the parties in her long history. Beaucrates governed China with landlords and wealthy merchants. China is a merchant country. Merchants built walls and lived in the walls with bureaucrats and soldiers.
| Governers and revolutionalists|
The table shows birth places of Chinese military governers, revolutionalist and beaucrates since 19th century. Modern beaucrates of ¹õÎ¶¹¾¾Ê and ±ÀÆî¾Ê are not listed up. ¹õÎ¶¹¾¾Ê was the homeland of Qing Dynasty. Armies of ±ÀÆî sometimes invaded rich ¹Åì before, and historical governments of China always fled there, when they were threatned by enemies from the north including Japan. They occurred strange Sino-Vietnamese War ( Ãæ±ÛÀïÁè ) in 1979.|
Governers and revolutionalists
|Year||Name||Birth place||Father's class||Military record|
|1935-1992||²¦¹¿Ê¸||µÈÎÓ¾Ê||Korean War, ÅÞÉû¼çÀÊ|
|1811-1872||Á¾¹ñÈÍ||¸ÐÆî¾Ê||¿Ê»Î, ¾Å·³ÁÏÀß, ¶Öº¹Âç¿Ã|
|1882-1948||ñÈ¶Ì¾Í||°Âµ«¾Ê||ÞÎ·³||ËÌÍÎ¿··³, Exiled eunuches|
|1887-1975||¾Õ²ðÀÐ||Þ¶¹¾¾Ê||±ö¾¦¿Í||IJA, ²«Ô¾·³´±³Ø¹»Ä¹, ÂÐÆü¶¦»º, ÁíÅý|
|1885-1935||Â¹ÅÁË§||»³Åì¾Ê||ËÌÍÎÉðÈ÷³ØÆ²Â´, IJA, ¸Þ¾ÊÎþ·³Áí»ÊÎá|
|1904 - 1997||ûý¾®Ê¿||»ÍÀî¾Ê||µÒ²È·ÏÃÏ¼ç||Ãæ±û·³»ö°Ñ°÷²ñ¼çÀÊ|
|1940 - ****||ÎÂ¸÷Îõ||»ÍÀî¾Ê|
|1940 - ****||×¡¼âÎµ||µ®½£¾Ê||Ãæ±û·³»ö°Ñ°÷²ñ°Ñ°÷|
| Governers of ¾å³¤»Ô and ¹Åì|
|| 1941 °Âµ«¾Ê|
|| 1938-2007 Þ¶¹¾¾Ê|
|2006-2007||´ÚÀµ|| 1954 Þ¶¹¾¾Ê|
¾å³¤»Ô and ¹Åì are very rich now, as they were in Qing. It seems that ËÌµþÀ¯ÉÜ controls ¹Åì because ¹Åì¾ÊÅÞ°Ñ½ñµ were not from ¹Åì now. But 3 successive ¾å³¤»ÔÅÞ°Ñ½ñµ are from Þ¶¹¾. ¾Õ²ðÀÐ was also from Þ¶¹¾. It seems to be independent from ËÌµþ. Ê¸²½Âç³×Ì¿ began from ¾å³¤. ¾å³¤ is too rich to revolt. If a big revolt break, ËÌµþÀ¯ÉÜ have to control money of ¾å³¤»Ô and ¹Åì not to support the revolt. ¾Õ²ðÀÐ could not win the conflict with CCP without support of merchants. He had bargained domestic resources and rights to manage Chinese economy too much.
| Difference between Western peasants and Chinese farmers revolts|
John Ball in 14th century and Thomas Müntzer in 17th century insisted to be free farmers from controlled peasants under lords. But Chinese farmers revolted to be new bureaucrats ( ´± ) of a new dynasty against an old dynasty. As for Japan, Samurai were also bureaucrats and inherited power. Revolted Japanese farmers never wanted to be samurai in Edo era. ¹¿½¨Á´ of ÂÀÊ¿Å·¹ñ publicized a strange marrige law in 1861. Bureaucrats must have wives respond to their bureaucratic class. Åì²¦ and À¾²¦ might have 11 wives, Æî²¦, Ð®²¦ etc were 6 wives, high class bureaucrats were 3, middle class bureaucrats were 2 and low class beaucrats were one.
¹¿½¨Á´ and ÂÀÊ¿Å·¹ñ p124, p163
| Traditional east Asian bribery|
Bureaucrats usually took bribes. The bribe was a part of goverment system. Although Japanese government of Edo era did not test bureaucrats by Analects, bureaucrats corrupted. Modern bureaucrats of Japan made endemic corruption system at last. The system absorbs tax legally whether Congress approved or not. We call it ¹½Â¤±ø¿¦.
A British ambassador wrote how bureaucrats of Qing government spent Emperor's money. A flood occurred in Cantong. A Emporor gave 50,000 Î¾ from his fund(ÆâÅÛ+¶Ò) to save people. Central government took 20,000 Î¾ at first. Local governments took 10,000 Î¾, 5,000 Î¾... The rest of the gift was only 10,000 Î¾. The ambassador recognized it systematic ÊÀÉ÷ correct. There was a bureaucrat called ÏÂ²¦+¿½. He was a minister of Qing. He gathered bribes as follows,
He also held real estates of 75 ¼Á²°, 42 Î¾ÂØ²° and 13 ¹üÆ¡Å¹ managed them. Bureaucrats of China invented money laundry to manage ¹üÆ¡Å¹.
- ¶â¸µÊõ 1,000 ¸Ä(1¸Ä = 100 Î¾, equivalent silver 1.5 million Î¾)
- ¶ä¸µÊõ 1,000 ¸Ä
- ÀÖ¶â 5.8 million Î¾
- À¸º»¶â 2 million Î¾
- ¸µÊõ¶ä 9.40 million Î¾
- ÍÎÁ¬ 58,000 ±ß
ÄÄÎÉ±§ was accused and judged for bribery. He took 2.39 million ¸µ and He got estate illegaly and sold it for 118 million ¸µ. What did he spent the money for? A Chinese girl has a dream of being a bribery beaucrat in ¹½£>
A judge in Germany revealed IJN system bribery in purchasing equippment or warships from Germany and UK. As the result, a vice admiral was exiled from IJN. A IJN officer fled to Canada where he died 32 years later. A former deputy minister of Defense was arrested with his wife in 2007. They have been under a bribe trial at high court. He was a top of bureaucrats of Defense Ministry. Prime Minister Tanaka was arrested in 1976 and guilty of bribery at the Tokyo High Court in 1987. Japan has eight laws of Ã±½ã¼ýÏÅºá, ¼õÂ÷¼ýÏÅºá, »öÁ°¼ýÏÅºá, Âè»°¼Ô¶¡ÏÅºá, ²Ã½Å¼ýÏÅºá, »ö¸å¼ýÏÅºá, ¤¢¤Ã¤»¤ó¼ýÏÅºá and Â£ÏÅºá to judge bureaucrats bribery.
A small company in Kyoto opened its branch in Korea a long time ago. The president sometimes flew to Soul from Osaka on business. He sighed to me that he had to have given bribes everywhere to do business speedy. It seemed that gift was important for human relations. He prepared some panty stockings for customs and ball point pens for clients. He gave them women clerks of the clients. He closed the barnch after a while. The table shows accused persons of bribery. The bribery number increased from 1,339 in 1994 to 1,919 in 1998. But Corruption Perceptions Index of Korea becomes good. Has bribery culture changed in Korea? Korean President Á´ÅÍßå, âºÂÙ¶ò were made open of stocking money illegaly.
| Military tops in the non-nuke nations|
||1954||he entered the Australian Senate in 1989|
|Denmark||Søren Gade||1963||son of shipmaster|
|Germany||Guttenberg||1972||his wife is Stephanie von Bismarck-Sch|
|Japan||Kitazawa||1938||son of Nagano Congressman|
|Vietnam||Phung Quang Thanhe|
Merkel's New Cabinet
Vietnamese People's Army Newspaper
 Corruption Perceptions Index
 Siemens Scandal
 ÇÈ ni Í¼ÍÛ no ±Æ mo naku ³¤·³¾¯º´ÃÝÆâ½½¼¡Ïº no À¸³¶
 Moriya Takemasa
 Tanaka Kakuei
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