This page contains Kanji characters.
Japan had traded with Netherlands at Nagasaki in Edo era. Netherlands had hired American ships to commnunicate Java
with Nagasaki. New emerging powers were Russia and America.
King in 1837
Whale hunting ships also advanced the Noth Pacific. The fishermen and traders wanted ports to supply fuel or water.
Therefore samurai of Uraga and a merchant trader met at Uraga. Did he know that Uraga is a choke point of Edo? The
Morrison of US anchored in Uraga on 30 July 1837. The Morrison was the first American ship
to try a contact near Edo, though it was not an official ship.
Biddle in 1846
US actioned gunboat diplomacy clearly against Japan the first time. Biddle came with 2 USS warships in Uraga on 20 July
1846. The line ship, USS Columbus was escorted by sloop USS Vincennes. The armament of USS Columbus were 68 32lb guns
and 19 42lb carronades. The sloop had 18 guns. Bakufu (Government) had changed how to handle such a
foreign ship. So Government offered some supply, Biddle refused and requested much. The Government gave free and
supplied with 5,000 woods, 2,500 eggs, 424 hens, pears, apricots, apples, raddish, eggplants, rice, flour, sugar
etc. As for water, either 360kL or 556kL was supplied. Original document writes 2,000 goku. Japanese
volume unit, koku (goku) were different from capacity of ship or woods. The Biddle squadron
departed on 29
Perry 1853, 1854
Perry came with 4 warships and anchored at Uraga on 8 July 1853. The fleet crossed an
official line called shiodome in Japanese to limit to enter Edo Bay easily. 100 US Marines landed on Kurihama of Japan
mainland on 14 July. Perry left for Hong Kong on 17 July. USN recognized Ryukyu (Okinawa) and Ogasawara
Islands were important for her strategy. He recommend US Congress that Taiwan was not the most superior position to advance China
and Japan. Later Nimitz' fleet traced Perry's footprint in the Pacific War. USN bypassed Taiwan! It seems that Japan
missed to understand US intention. US succeeded in banning to build forts in Okinawa and
Ogasawara in Washington Teaty.
Perry came again with 9 warships and anchored at Koshiba on 13 February 1854. The total displacement of the fleet was
12,727t. Nihon koku meriken Gasshukoku washin jyouyaku (日本国米利堅合衆国和親条約) was concluded at Yokohama on
31 March. Government tied the same treaty with other 4 powers in 1859.
Harris in 1856
Harris, American official came at Shimoda on a USS steam warship on 21 August 1856. I think he was a
typical merchant-like American official, when I read a site. He insisted, "US goverment does not admit that Americans will sell drug in
Japan." Japan and US agreed supeority of US official in Japan on 17 June 1857. He was pragmatic and realistic. Inoue
and Iwase negotiated a commerce treaty with Harris. Harris advised that joint British and French fleet would began a
campaign and war against Japan after the war with China and confuse of India on 18 June 1856. Japan and
US tied Nichibei Shuko Tsusho Joyaku (Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan) off Koshiba on
29 July 1858. I guess Inoue and Iwase signed on USS Powhatan off Koshiba.
French Marines in 1863
In the end of Edo era, Bakufu (Government) opened Yokohama Port near Edo (Tokyo) in 1859. Yokohama was the most
important port in Japan among allied powers. Local governments (han) of Japan bought 20 thousands rifles in
the Boshin War in Yokohama and Nagasaki where Western merchants sold arms, books, drugs and various products freely
under the treaties with 5 powers.
300 French troops of Maghreb infantry and Marines arrived in 1863. The troops and marines settled at Yokohama.
The troops staioned on a hill where we called it the France Hill (Yama) in later. The French military advisory group
trained Shogun's western style infantry Densyutai. And a French engineer designed a
modern shipyard at Uraga in 1866. But Bakufu lost power in the Boshin War, a few French
advisors and the rest of Densyutai fled to Ezo(Hokkaido). They planned surprisingly capture of imperial
warships in Miyako, but failed.
French invasion in 1866 and 1867
France sent the settled troops to Korea in October 1866 and to Vietnam in 1867. 170 of 300 Marines landed Korea on 16
October. France was one of big powers and the other was UK in those days. Meiji government negotiated
that allied troops would retreat from the foreign settlement. French Army was strong. A few thousand troops conquered
1857 Arrow War
1858 Da Nang campaign by 3,000 troop
1859 Occupied Saigon
1861 Saigon campaign by 3,500 troop
1864 Battles for Shimonoseki
1866 江華島 campaign
1867 Mekong Delta campaign by 2,000 troop
1882 North Vietnum campaign by 1,000 troop
Both of French and British troops left Yokohama on 2 March 1875. Soon later Japan dispatched her infantry to Korea as
France did, and stationed Vietnum just before the Pacific War on 28 July 1941. The station triggered Desperate War of
Japan in the Pacific.
USN invaded Korea in 1871
USN actioned gun boat diplomacy watching on UK and France carefully. She has been smart and pragmatic. US Marines
captured Korean general's flag in 1871, when USN bombarded on a Korean base. A Korean newspaper wrote an
opinion why Korea failed that Japan invaded her using gunboats, that is houkan. But the newspaper did
not write why Korea was not colonized by other Western powers. France had invaded Korea in 1866. Both powers had been
very interested in Chinese wealth, but Korea was too poor to govern at their military cost.
Actually Japan invested much for her power, but the return was less than investment. So why did leaders of Japan were
interested in colonization of poor Korea? After all, to get military power was easier than to develop a country. As a
result of Japanese-Russo War, powers approved of revising unequal treties between Japan.
Sperry in 1908
The great white fleet showed presence of US sea power toward other sea power nations, UK, France, Germany, Italy
and Japan. The total displacement of the great white fleet was 224,737t While The total displacement of IJN
battleships was 153,423t. IJN had 68 % displacement of USN battleships. Some IJN officers insisted IJN had to
have 70 % at leat to fight against USN in Showa era. The fleet visited Yokohama on 18 October 1908, and departed on 25
October 1908. The fleet ran by coal in those day. USN had 8 coal supply ships. USN had to hire 49 ships from UK and
It shows that USN could not strike IJN near Japan across the Pacific Ocean by herself. Japan also had allianced with
UK till 1923. USN needed 25 battleships, 128 transports, 248 ferries for coal and 303 other warships to help 39
transports for soldiers against Japan in January 1925.
Japan decided to invasion of German territory in China at once, when WWI broke out. Japan declared war on Germany and
occupied 青島 in 1914. Japanese newspapers thought that Japan should demand rights to invade China naturally.
Government actioned gunboat diplomacy, but failed. Chinese people actioned anti Japanese movement. Japanese and
Chinese nationalism collied in China. The collision stopped in 1945 at last.
1914Aug11 Asahi Newspaper suggested to arms in China
1914Aug15 Ultimatum to Germany
1914Aug23 Government declared war on Germany
1914----- Australia occupied German New Guinea
1914Oct-- Japan occupied German Saipan
1914Oct12 Japan occupied German Truk
1914Nov07 Japan occupied German 青島
1914Nov11 Government decided to Twenty-One demands
1914----- Fiction 'The next war' in Japan
1915Jan18 Twenty-One Demands
1915Feb02 Japan and China began talks about Twenty-One demands
1916Mar23 袁世凱 gave up being Emperor
1916Apr23 Asahi Newspaper suggested to arms in China
1915May07 Ultimatum to China
1915May25 Japan and China tied amended Twenty-One demands
While US did military actions as follows
1912 US dispatched Marines to Nicaragua
1914 US dispatched Marines to Mexico and occupied Veracruz
1915 US dispatched Marines to Hiti
1916 US troop stationed Mexico and US Marines was dispatched to Dominica
1917 US declared war on Germany
Both of Japan and US were busy with invasion in 1910s. But China was too big for Japan. They were powers after WWI and
recognized the enemy each other across the Pacific. US Immigration Act of 1924 hurt Japanese pride. US did not want
that Japan was dominant in China.