Knowledge power
Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific
 Send students in China
Japan had learned technology and politics from China since Nara era for a long time. Wu of Han ( 156BC-87BC ) built a colony called Rakurou-gun in Korea. Han dynasty had governed people by controlling salt and iron. Goguryeo(Kokuri) destroyed the colonies. Gaozong ( 628-683 ) of Tang defeated Baekje ( Kudara ) and Yamato in 663. Yamato decided to learn Tang civilization deep, and sent students.
Goguryeo (Kokuri)
Baekje (Kudara)

Although Yamato tried to govern people in a Chinese political system, the system did not work well except for Kyoto. Bureaucrats and national soldiers of China lived in a designed political castle surrounded by walls. Japan did not build polices such a walled district for civil and military service. Fujiwara government stopped maintain Kyoto and abolished the national army at last. Instead of military concerns, they were busy with love affairs including Mikados. And they gave up writing documents or poems in Chinese. Local mayors did not understand Chinese at all. They began to write communication documents in informal original Japanese characters. While bureaucrats of Korea had a pride in writing Chinese, who continued to record official documents in Chinese till 20th century, though they did not spoke Chinese. Korea adopted Chinese style bureaucracy well. Beaucrats were seperated int civil and military in Korean court, otherwise Japan was military government called bakufu. So Japanese officials always wore swords in Edo era, while Korean officials wore a pen proudly.

China and Korea had traditional eunuchs (court official) for a long time. I do not know why Japanese court did not adopt eunch. I guess that Mikados did not have absolute power or authority to govern like China and Korea till Edo era. Korean court abolished eunch in 1894. Fu gyoku sho exlied eunchs from the Forbidden Court in 1924.

China, Korea and Japan are bureaucratic nations now. Bureaucrats have governing power in the nations. Korea and Japan impose a writing test to be a bureaucrats. The test originates Chinese old kakyo. Meiji Government adopted it.

Iron making, in those days, called 'tatara' was done by prisoneers from Korea[1]. Yayoi people had already tatara iron making in 6th century. The remains was found at 35°40′30″N 135°04′00″E in the north of Kyoto (Enjyo iseki) The word may be from tatar, Göktürks (Tokketsu), originally means Turk. Iron making people became official in Nara era. In the end of Heian era, iron making people fled from Govermnment. The private craftmen were to slave for big temples or local ruling manors. The first iron craft guild was Toudai-ji in Nara in 1118[2].

As for bronze ware, people in Japan did not use. Lords used them as symbols of authority. People in Japan began to use iron tool from wooden tool in drastic manner. While China had a splendid bronze culture for a long time.

A pike trooperHorse archer
Goryeo (Korai) and Yuan (Gen) Dynasty planned to conquer Japan in 1266. Both kings sent diplomatic documents Japan in Chinese. Samurai of Kamakura could not read Chinese, maybe. Diplomatic advisers of Kamakura government were priests. Therefore tatara developed everywhere because samurai needed a lot of iron weapon. Mongol style Korai army landed Kyushu in 1274. Samurai used a long bow made by bamboo. While Korean used shorter bows than Japanese ones. The painting shows an enemy trooper who had a pike. All the samurai were horse archers. That was an archery war. Samurai did not charge like Western knights with a lance in Kamakura era. Samurai felt dignity skillful in horse archery. Unique Prince Moriyoshi (1308-1335) wore a long bow, who wanted to be Shogun. Shogun Ashikaga Yoshihisa (1465-1489) wore a long bow of Shigetou. Ieyasu was called the most excellent archer in Tokaido with hornor even the age of guns.

The picture shows the mongol soldiers wore boots naturally. Did Kamakura bushi also wear boots? We watch a drama on TV that a bushi armed a rifle and wore a kind of sandals ( thongs ) in the end of Edo era. The illustrated handscroll of the Tale of the Heiji Civil War (J. Heiji monogatari) depicts the Hogen Insurrection (1156). The warriors wore ones like sandals and boots. A site titled 'hakimono ni tuite' shows an interesting picture. A knight on a horse wore boots. A pike trooper wore sandals ( thongs ), when Mongol invasion. The thongs were called Ashinaka. It shows a good proof that Japan is mixture of the north Asian and the south Pacific Asian originated culture. Saigyo (1118-1190), a famous poet was a bushi, who wore a shoes.
Hakimono ni tuite

IJA soldiers troubled a long march because their military shoes were poor. So they wore US army boots from bodies of enemy. I show you modern US army boots in deserts. North Vietnamese people endured logistics for a long time in Vietnam War and they wore sandals ( thongs ) made of rubber from a used car wheel tire. Some sites show such sandals, but they are not thongs. But a report writes local Vietnamese women wear thong sandals. I love thong sandals made of sponge rubber on beach in summer.
Kappa ashi
Gomu zouri

I hear that Korean people disliked Japanese thong till the end of the Pacific War. It was a symbol of Japanese governance. We call it geta. A girl throws a geta in a festival in the photo. The geta is Kitarou's tool or weapon in manga of "Gege no kitarou".

Export sword to China
After falling Yuan, Japanese-Ming commerce was official trade, Japan exported a lot of sulfer and steel swords, 3,050 in 1432, 13,000 in 1434, 9,900 in 1451, 30,000 in 1467, 7,000 in 1476, 38,610 in 1486. Chinese officials were surprised at huge export from Japan. The swords might be made in Nara. Naturally sulfer was material of powder. Japan imported a lot of copper coin and books. The commerce brought up merchants. People of Kyoto could not live with out money. Money spread little by little. Japan could export other handcraft Japanese fans, paintings and drawings in Ashikaga era.
Kubota p.144-145

Iron for guns
Primitive arquebus ejecting stone bullet propagated in 15th century. Western type of arquebus having excellent fire mechanism propagated in 16th century. the arquebus were copied at once and made a lot in Kunitomo, Negoro and Sakai. As samurai favored arquebus with their conflicts, iron was short. So western merchants imported steel from India to Japan by their ships[3]. The steel seems to be Wootz steel. So the iron was called Nanban-tetsu meanning Western iron.

Kato Kiyomasa ordered his samurai to arm with a gun each, when Hideyoshi's Korea invasion in 16th century. He invaded Manchuria at first in history of Japan in 1592. That was an age of gun.
Katou Kiyomasa

Edo bakufu allowed to import western books about science, technology, etc in 1720 officially. Western knowledge of anatomy excited some medics. Coming Russians in Hokkaido and knowing Qing defeat by UK sea power, some intellectuals of western hans began to learn western knowledge. The HMS Phaeton incident took a few hans' serious conserns in Kyusyu in 1808. The Phaeton entered Nagasaki without official permission on 15 August 1808. She cheated Japanese coast guards while putting up a flag of Netherlands. Was a hired American pilot on board? Netherlands had hired American merchant ships to trade with Japan and Java in 18th century. It seems to me that the procedure of entering Nagasaki was complicated. Troops of Nabeshima han guarded Nagasaki then. But obsolete guns in Nagasaki showed no power against a British warship. The Phaeton went out on 17 August. A Nagasaki bugyo, a chief official in Nagasaki killed himself for the responsibilty of the incident on the day. He was buried in a tomb of a Buddism temple. But people of Nagasaki honored him who died with unavenged grievances and calmed his soul in Suwa Shrine later.
Phaeton jiken
Nagasaki nyukou tetuzuki
Nagasaki bugyo

Though Nabeshima, Kumamoto, and Satsuma Han wanted powerful guns. But they could not cast guns by traditional tatara iron.

Nabeshima Naomasa decide to build a reverberatory furnace for the iron by themselves only knowledge from books. It spent almost 40 years and a lot of money. Only Nabeshima han suceeded in 1850. Because,

  • Nabeshima Naomasa was very eager to learn western technology and science
  • Arita-yaki was useful for making bricks enduring high temperature
  • Skills of conventional crafts could make wooden machines powered by water wheels

Nabeshima Han made modern breech-loading guns. The artillery skill of Nabeshima crushed Shogun's Densyutai which was an infantry troop trained by French military advisers in the Boshin War.
Syuseikan kanren shisetsu
Nabeshima Naomasa

Guns equipped IJN warships in WWII did not seem short except small 25mm guns, though IJA troubled short of field or anti tank guns. I did not know when powers made gun material with Nickel. Nickel steel of Japan contains 1.5, 3.0 or 5% Ni. Nickel is rare material.[8]

 Steel for warship
Iron/Steel production [Mton]
Battle cruisers
Japanese naval crews learned gun fires on ships in the Boshin war. IJN showed maneuver and salvo rapid fire with recoil against Qing fleet in 1894. Main ships of IJN were built in France. A captain of the flag ship was a commander of Shogun's navy. IJN method was changed into UK style. IJN ordered Kongo in UK. Japan had sea power that German oriental fleet did not action in the north Pacific during WWI. The photo shows 4 battle cruisers of Kongo, Hiei, Haruna and Kirishima after WWI. IJN built battleship Satsuma(1906-1923) at IJN Yokosuka Arsenal in 1906 by herself. Battleship was a symbol of powers in those days. Shipbuilding a battleship might be more difficult than making a nuke for under developing nations in those days.
Koukai kaisen

Japan Iron & Steel Co. productioned rolled steel at the peak in 1943.[9] The wikipedia showed the production of the company in quarter year. I showed the data by graph. The production decreased in Q1 of 1943 strangely. The volume of the year reached 9 million ton. Wikipedia does not show the data now. I ignore the erased data.
Rolled steel product and usage, Ships: for merchant 1945; January through March
in 1938
19384876 100.0%19%6%11%4
19394676 95.9%18%5%11%4
19404532 92.9%17%5%13%5
19414153 85.2%11%7%18%8
Steel production 1945:Jan-Mar
Japan increased Iron production after WWI much. But the production was much less than 2 powers of US and UK.
Kennedy p.257

Technology that make rolled steel for warships developed well just before the Pacific War.[7] Domestic steel and rolled steel productions decreased, as follows.[4] The peak of rolled steel was in 1938. How did Japanese leaders decide to war against US in spite of decreasing steel production? Nippon Steel production increased till 1944. Another site also shows increase of pig iron production.[5] One more antohter data shows that steel production ability increased from 5,210 kton in 1937 to 11,700 kton in 1944.[6] Morimoto showed that Japan productioned steel of 6.85 million ton in 1940.[10 I think that both tables of steel production and rolled steel product and usage of Japan were not true.

Japanese economy had fallen because of expenditure of war in China. Merchant ships are built of 70 % of rolled steel material. Japan should build a lot of merchant ships at first, if Japan wanted to be independent from UK and US merchant ships. Japan made desperate effort to build ships for shortage of freighters sunk by enemy submarines last 2 years. Japan could not transport resources across the Sea of China in safe, though Japan captured and occupied resources in China and Dutch East India. How stupid.

 Transition of steel nations
The top of nation of iron product changed as follows. US exceeded UK till 1890. After WWII, Germany and France established European Coal and Steel Community ( ECSC ) in 1952. This changed history in Europe.

Steel product change of Japan [kt]
Russia continued to increase product of iron till the end of WWII, but failed to compete with US during the cold war.

Steel product of nuke club [kt]

Japan exceeded US in 1980, learning mass prodcution of steel from US. The cold war helped Japan develop ironically. China exceeded Japan in 1996. In the nations of socialistic economy, interestingly Russia was exceeded by China in 1991. Now China makes iron 4 folds of Japan.
Mishima, p95
Oushy tekko kyoudou-tai
Syuyoukoku sokou seisan
Steel product of non-nuke nations [kt] Joint Communiqué between Japan and Ukraine
However, US invented nuke in WWII. The nuke changed the world completely. India developed nuke knowlede only, I think. All the nations have no nukes cannot challange nuke club. UK is a middle class nation without nuke. UK will never give up nuke possesition in future. Steel production of major 11 non-nuke nations is 54% of all the nuke club.

GNP ratio of US/Japan
Year19401941 194219431944
US/Japan10.912.7 14.316.618.1
GNP index of Japan
19361937 1938193919401941194219431944
100123.3127.3 128.5120.9122.7124.4124.4119.8
Iron had shown the power of nations till WWII. Ecnomic power was measured by GNP or GDP. The table shows how GNP of Japan and US in the Pacific War. US produced 100 billion dollars in 1940. While Japan 9.2 billion dollars. Although the ratio of US/Japan was 10.9 at the break of the Pacific Warr, The ratio was 18.1 in 1944. This shows that US increased GDP at sharp in the WWII.

Aggregate market value
Nationtrillion $trillion yenShare[%]
HongKong 2.582974.4

Growth ratios of Japan were only 1% and 2% in 1941 and 1942. GNP of Japan sharply increased, when Japan began Japanese-Chinese war at 1936. However, the peak of GNP was in 1939. This shows Japan had no extra power war against US.
Morimoto, p378-382

Money may be the power of nations now. US is the super power of money with nuke. The table shows aggregate market value at end of Sep 2007.

[1] Kubota, p62-63
[2] Kubota, p121
[3] Kubota, p160
[4] Hinkoku, p100, p102
[5] Sangyou
[6] Tekkou Seisan Setsubi no vintage Henka
[7] Soukou kouhan no kikai-teki seishitsu
[8] Mishima, p121
[9] Japan Iron &; Steel Co.
[10] Morimoto, Hinkoku kyouhei, p25

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