Marines
Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific
This page contains kanji charcters.
 Japanese amphibous campaings
Shanghai Incident (Jan - Mar 1932)
Shanghai
A riot crowd raided a Japanese Naigaimen factory at the west of Shanghai on 18 October 1931. IJN decided to action at once. A crowd of Japanese peole held a protest meeting in Shanghai, when a Chinese newspaper wrote an unsuitaable article about Mikado. More than one thirds people of Shanghai settlement were Japanese. Few French peole interested us.

Shanghai settlement people of nations in 1930
NationJapanUKRussiaUSIndiaPortgulGermanyFranceetc
People18,7968,4497,3663,1491,8421,5991,4301,4064,769
Ratio38.517.315.16.53.83.32.92.99.8

Japanese Marine, troops of 1,876 collied with Chinese private troops in Shanghai on 29 January 1932. Minister Shigemitsu requested IJA dispatch on 1 February. Japanese Cabinet held a meeting on 2 February. Makino and Takahashi disagreed and proposed withdraw of Japanese people. But the cabinet decided expedition. Japan had to dispatch troops in large scale. IJN dispatched aircraft carrier Kaga and Hosyo in action at first. Aerial combat was done. Under a commision of British minister, Murai minister told Mayor of Shangnai that Ueda demanded 20 km withdrawal of Chinese troops on 18 February. See the map. The Chinese troops had already made 3 layer-zones of defence. Each zone were a few lines of a trench. They were WWI type positions. Japanese army began attack with artillery and tanks on 20 February. Japanese army stopped the first offense on 22 February, though IJN supplied with 1.2 million ammo of rifles, 260 thousand ammo of machine guns and 4 thousand ammo of guns. The second offence began on 25 February, and could not break the first front.

IJN aircraft of carrier Kaga
3shiki-2go Kansen13shiki-2go Kanko B1M2
IJA and IJN did an amphibious operation on 1 March. IJA used newly developed landing crafts and armored boats for the first time. The landing craft was called Daihatsu.
Gunzo, p36-49 No.90
Shanghai Incident (1932)

Merchant ships for campaigns
DistrictNumber
Philippines138
Java, Bali99
Borneo42
Malay26
Timor24
Sumatra23
New Britain12
Guam12
It follows IJN combat of Shanghai Incident in list.

Jan30 Aircraft carrier Kaga and Sawakaze arrived at Maanshan Islands
Jan31 Enemy repeated attacks
----- 17 aircraft of Kaga flew over Shanghai
Feb01 Aircraft carrier Hosyo and 2nd Destroyer Squadron arrived at Maanshan Islands
Feb22 An enemy Boeing-218 shot down a Mitsubishi 13shiki-3go kanko. 3 Nakajima 3shiki-2go kansen shot down it at Suzhou

Although Japan got a military win, Japan failed in diplomatic relation with League of Nations. Japan lost European nations support except for Uk.

Amphibious operation
Japan had actioned amphibious operations in the Pacific for three months. IJA and IJN used 376 merchant ships of 1.9MGT in the big campaings. Japan lost 53 merchant ships which were 14% of all the Japanese merchant ships.
Ohuchi, p20-21

 Qinhuangdao of US Marines in 1945
USMC in China
China
US dispatched 2 divisions of Marines at Qinhuangdao ( Shinkoutou ) to defend heart of China from Soviet, where was the east end of the Great Wall. The Marines deployed from Beijing to Shandong ( Santou ).[4] I do not know why US gave up the route. UK and Japan captured the line at once, when RN and IJN invaded from the sea. Marines landed on North China on 30 September 1945.[3]
Qinhuangdao (Shinkoutou)

US thought that one inherits legitimation of China who controls Central Plain as well as Japan did. But it was not true under nationalism in China.

 Okinawa battle of USN in November 1944 - June 1945
USN and USA planned Taiwan invasion in 1944 originally. They were to invade in spring 1945. USN organized and did the last amphibious operation in the Pacific War. Japanese operation sections of general staff of IJA and IJA could not recognize US invasion direction whether Taiwan or Okinawa as Mariana battle did, though intelligence of IJA and IJN predicted the direction correctly. It seemed both general staff of IJA and IJN were not smart but dogmatic. Rather bureaucratic military officers did not depend intelligence but their learned strategy. A few staffs of intelligence called it a dogmatic operation. Japan had lost 4,500 troop of Dokuritsu konsei 44 ryodan by US submarines in June 1944. And IJA pulled out Dai 9 Shidan (9th Division) from Okinawa to Taiwan in November. So IJA armament decreased two-thirds in Okinawa.
    1944Oct03 the Joint Chiefs of Staff ordered Nimitz to occupy an island in Ryukyu Islands untill 1st March 1945
    1944Oct05 Nimitz informed cancel of Taiwan invasion to all the armies in the Pacific
DOA, p18-p20
Okinawa kessen

Ulithi Atoll
The Ulithi Atoll(9.97N, 139.67E) locates at distances of 644km, 1,400km, 1,500km and 1900km from Palau Harbor, Iwojima, Manila and Okinawa. USN was to occupy the Ulithi Atoll to conquer Japan. US Army landed on 22 September 1944. Palau and Ulithi could defense air raids one another, because P-38 had a range radius of 870km. 617 US ships had ported in the Ulithi Atoll during the Okinawa Battle at once, though Apra Harbor of Guam could port a few hundred ships.
Gunzo, p95-96 No.77
Gakken, Vol.28

Logistic ships
US logistic task force supported fast carriter TG with 33 oilers, 11 escort carriers, 10 tag boats etc. Nimitz manuverd 1,213 ships inclding 649 freighters.
Kaijyo logistics

Preparation before landing
Air raid on 10 October 1944
TimeAircraft
[approx]
Targets
06:40-08:20240airfields
09:20-10:15220airfields
vessels
11:45-12:30140Habor facility;
Naha
Nago
Yonahara
Awase
ŷ
ϵ
12:40-13:40130Naha
14:45-15:45170Naha
Merchant ships sunk in harbors
KanjiNameGTKIA
Houraimaru3,20117
ʡFukuuramaru3,1771
Taikaimaru2,47826
۴Nanyoumaru2,21854
ζKouryumaru2,17037
ŴTetsusanmaru2,018-
裱1st Nankamimaru1,163t-
Niuramaru2941
裶¿6th Hakatamaru262-
裲ݿ2nd Marushinmaru196-
5th Taiseimaru95-
An Emily did not come back, which was patroling from Kanoya along tropic of Cancer on Oct 9 in 1944. Air raids of 38th TG destroyed 1 submarine tender, 2 midzet submarines, 4 freighter and Naha completely. USN reconed aerial photos to make maps of 1/25,000 scale. Aircraft took off between Daito and Okinawa, did 1396 sorties. They launched 652 rockets and 21 torpedos. They released 541t of bombs. They also attacked Daito, Miyako, Ishigaki, Amami, and Tokunoshima. Naha burned 3 quaters of town area.

Air raid for destroying enemy air force
Kerama Islands
Kerama
KanjiNameArea
Aka3.1km2
αKerama1.7km2
ϲTokashiki15.3km2
The US made maps of Okinawa which were distributed in March 1945. They were not enough and the US reckoned and took aerial photos on 1, 22 January, 28 February, 1 March again and again.

Finally Japan estimated that enemy would land on Okinawa in Mar the first of 1945. The IJN 5th Air fleet (580 aircraft) in Kyushu fought with Task Group 58(TG-58), lost 128 aircraft on 18 and 19 March. The TG-58 refueld, got food and exchanged aviators and aircraft at the sea of the south of Okinawa on 22 March. The TG-58 and escort aircaft carriers did 3,095 sorties. On 26 March US Army began landing Kerama Islands to get seaplanes base and anchorage area for invading fleet. The map shows the Kerama Islands which was splitted into two straits called Kerama Strait and Aka Strait. The depth of the straits is 13 hiro to 37 hiro (hiro = 1.8m). The coasts are 44 natural ports. 77th Division landed on the Kerama Islands 15 times.
DOA, p60-62

Start up landing clock
The US 6th Marine Division (24,356 troops) and 1st Marine Division (26,274 troops) departed from Guadalcanal on 12 March 1945. They left Saipan for Okinawa on March 25th. A convoy would depart from US west coat, when landed before 40 days for supplies. Each convoy would be to depart in 10 days for 21 times. The convoys of 430 ships had transported troops of 183,000 and supplies of 748,000 ton from Leyte, etc at first. They are a few of them, as follows and are cited on Wiki.

    USS Pecos (AO-65) spent April and May at sea in the fueling area off Okinawa transferring oil and gasoline to 3rd Fleet ships.
    USS Ashland (LSD-1) touched at Samar on 1 July to embark PT boats and their crews for transportation to Kerama Retto. The ship sailed on 3 July, unloaded her charges, and returned to Leyte on 10 July. She shuttled a similar cargo to Okinawa soon.
    USS Epping Forest (LSD-4) arrived off the Hagushi beaches 1 April 1945 for the invasion of Okinawa, and during the days of bitter fighting, repaired landing craft at various anchorages around the island. She worked with the skill of long practice under air attacks and the constant threat of enemy suicide attacks by small boats and swimmers as well as aircraft.
    USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5) remained anchored at nearby Kerama Retto until 1 July to repair small craft. She was untouched by the enemy's fierce kamikaze attacks although she saw several other American ships hit and crippled.
    USS Lindenwald (LSD-6) sailed due north from San Pedro Bay, Leyte, for Okinawa on 26 March and arrived 1 April. She remained off Okinawa for 92 days, docking, repairing, and servicing landing craft damaged by enemy gunfire or the heavy surf. During this period, the ship repaired 452 boats. Enemy harassment twice threatened to cut short her busy career. Early morning 27 May, after suicide planes crashed two sister auxiliary ships, Lindenwald splashed an enemy aircraft before it could crash nearby Carina. Two weeks later, a murderous barrage from Lindenwald diverted an incoming suicide plane just enough to escape disaster. It barely missed the radar mast and splashed 500 yards off the bow.
    USS Oak Hill (LSD-7) rehearsed with units of the 1st Marine Division for her next operation, the Okinawa campaign. On 1 April, she arrived in transport area Baker, lowered her LCMs for the assault on Blue Beach and then began repairing landing craft. Through the end of May, she remained in the Hagushi area for repair duties. Then she transported Marines and tanks to Iheya Shima and to Aguni Shima before steaming back to Leyte, 10 June. For the remainder of the war, Oak Hill transported men and equipment from the central Pacific to the Philippines and Okinawa.
    USS White Marsh (LSD-8) and her division mates arrived off Okinawa during the night of 31 March - 1 April. Early in the morning, she disembarked her troops for the landings on Okinawa. Once again, after completing the disembarkation process, the dock landing ship anchored and began landing craft repair duty. Throughout her two-month stay at Okinawa, enemy air activity was heavy, but White Marsh only engaged Japanese aircraft on three occasions - on 6, 12, and 15 April - and claimed hits on two of the attackers. On 3 June, the ship departed Okinawa and proceeded to Leyte. She entered San Pedro Bay on 8 June and remained there for three days. On the 11th, the ship moved to Manicani Island where she loaded six motor torpedo boats and their crews for transportation to Okinawa. She left Manicani on 15 June and arrived in Kerama Retto on the 19th. She discharged cargo and personnel during the next two days and began a voyage to the Philippines on the 22d.
    USS Casa Grande (LSD-13) next cruised among the Solomons to load Marines, landing craft, and tanks for the invasion of Okinawa. She took departure from Ulithi on 26 March, and arrived off Okinawa at dawn of 1 April. Landing equipment and troops under the first of the kamikaze attacks which were to bathe the Okinawa operation in blood, she moved to Kerama Retto on 4 April to operate a small boat repair shop there until 3 June, when she sailed for a minor overhaul at Leyte.
    USS Cabildo (LSD-16) carried out her duties of docking and repairing small craft, transporting amphibious craft, and operating boat-pools at Guam and Okinawa in July.
At dawn of 1 April 1945, There were US 1,300 vessles near Okinawa. It was fine and 24°C. It blew a faint wind. The sight range was 16km untill 6 o'clock and decreased 8 to 11km in fog.
    0530 10 battleships, 9 cruisers, 23 destroyers and 177 gunboats opend fire
    0550 dawn
    0745 aircarft released napam bombs on beach and trenches
    0800 a first group of Amphibious tanks and trucks ran offshore 360m
    0815 first formation near their mother ships
    0820 the first line ran
    0830 the line ashored
USN landed 577,000t of supplies until 16 April. 16,000 troops landed in a hour. 60,000 troops landed and artillery deployed at sunset. How many LCVP did transport in Okinawa? While IJA developed a landing craft (daihatsu) with a ramp in 1929. Ship pioneers handled them in IJA. IJN also adopted it.
Tokuda, p180
LCVP
Daihatsu

Gun bombardment
Colorado 155mm
USS Colorado in Okinawa155mm at Keise I.
The left photo shows Battleship Colorado bombards Okinawa on 29 March. The US Marines reconnoitered Keise Island off Naha on 26 March. In the morning of 31 March, 531st and 43rd Field Artillery Batallions landed at sand beach and deployed 24 155mm of L45 cannons called 'Long Tom.' They were ready for bombarding on 1 April. USN aircraft began to attack airfields on 25 March, and did 3,095 sorties.

Gun fire power fire power = mass x QTY
CaliberStowageMass[2]QtyFire powerBarrel life
[rounds]
152mm200HC 47.6kg 271.29t750 - 1,050
203mm150HC 118kg748.73t715
305mmL50100HC 336kg124.03t200
356mmL45100Bombardment
640kg
2012.8t175 - 200
356mmL50100HC 578kg3620.8t200 - 250
406mmL45100HC 862kg2420.69t395

Battleship Colorado destroyed 2 anti tank artillery postions on 14 May. USN began bombardment on 25 March. USS Nevada and West Virginia were salveged at Pearl Harbor and came back gun fire operations. USS Arkansas (BB-33) was the oldest battleship of 33-year-old among the battery group. USS Tennessee (BB-43) was eqwipped with 56 40mm Bofors guns for AA combat. They spent shells of 13,000 (15-40cm) during 7 days. It weighed 5,162t by 10 battle ships and 10 cruisers, including 12cm shells. IJA knew gun power of warships. The total number of main guns of battleships and cruisers was 194. Mass of each gun was known. All the guns of fire power was 68.3t at a time. Torikai shows rounds number, so I check up the total mass[1]. However, the numbers is not matching.

I calculated average rounds and used ratio of each guns. 36 cm and 15 cm guns showed high ratio. I do not know why 40 cm and 20 cm guns fired fewer. USN might plan that other warships would fire, when the light cruisers and the 36 cm battleships would retreat for ammunition.

Bombardment Warships in Iceberg Operation
NameCommissionedArmament
[mm]
AA
40mmL56, 20mmL70
Complement
Arkansas, BB-33191212x305L5036x40mm, 36x20mm1,063
New York, BB-34191410x356L4540x40mm, 48x20mm1,042
Texas, BB-35191410x356L4540x40mm, 48x20mm954
Nevada, BB-36191610x356L4540x40mm , 45x20mm864
New Mexico, BB-40191812x356L50 40x40mm, 40x20mm1,084
Idaho, BB-421919 12x356L5040x40mm, 40x20mm1,081
Tennessee, BB-43192012x356L5056x40mm, 43x20mm1,401
Colorado, BB-4519238x406L4536x40mm, 43x20mm1,080
Maryland, BB-4619218x406L4536x40mm, 43x20mm1,080
West Virginia, BB-481923 8x406L4536x40mm, 43x20mm1,407
Pensacola, CA-24193010203-653
Salt Lake City, CA-25192910203-612
Portland, CA-3319339203-848
Indianapolis, CA-3519329x203-1,269
Minneapolis, CA-3619349203-708
Tuscaloosa, CA-3719349203-708
San Francisco, CA-3819349203-708
Wichita, CA-4519399203-929
St. Louis, CL-49193915152L47-888
Birmingham, CL-62194312152L47-1,200

Mass of main shells by landing
CaliberTotal roundsAverage rounds
Used ratio
Mass[kg]Sub[t]
40cm1,54364 (64%)8621330.066
36cm3,24790 (90%)5781876.766
30cm57548 (48%)336193.200
20cm3,70050 (33%)118436.600
15cm4,200156 (78%)47.6199.920
12.7cm27,750-24.6682.650
Total---4719.202

TG58 air raid airfields of Kyushu
TG58 had 17 carriers which carried 1,212 aircraft. Escort warships of the carriers were 8 battleships, 18 cruisers and 64 destroyers. Escort also had 76 seaplanes. Carriers of TG58 had 581 fighters including 53 night fighters. Fast Carrier Group left for Leyte on Jun 13.

TG58 & TG50 Fighters in Iceberg Operation

F4U-1DFG-1DF6F-5F6F-5EF6F-5PF6F-5NFG-1F6F-3FM-2
TG58-171- 16641210---
TG58-230249 13627---
TG58-399- 14041112---
TG58-465- 118-4413-
TG50-8--- -----32
Total2652473 2133531332

CAP and ASW of TG52
TG52(SUPPORT CARRIER GROUPhad 18 escort aircraft carriers, 34 destroyers escorts. The total aircraft were 540. The 18 escort carriers had 343 fighters and 197 torpedo bombers inculding 6 with a radar. The fighters did CAP which were 64% of the total aircraft of TG52. The 343 fighters consisted of 262 FM-2 and 77 F6F. George or Frank could not combat over Okinawa in short of range. Did FM-2 combat against Zero? FM-2 had bigger power than F4F. Tbl-100 shows designation and quantity of the aircraft of TG52. Three escort aircraft carriers of 18 were damaged by Japanese aircraft and retired the mission, which were USS Sangamon (CVE-26) with 33rd squadron, Natoma Bay (CVE-62), Wake Island (CVE-65). The 33rd squadron had 6 TBM-3E which were equipped with a radar.

Another data shows that 20 CVEs took part in the Okinawa Battle and they carried 302 FM-2. After the battle, USS Lunga point (CVE-94) patrolled on 1 August in the west of Okinawa. 4 FM-2 intercepted at 1710. One of FM-2 shot down a Frances. This was the last kill of FM-2 in the Pacific War.
F4F, p53

3 submarines of IJN tried to attack a ferry route in the east of Okinawa. 4 submarines were equipped Kaitens and planned to attack ships at anchor. USN did ASW perfect.

Aircaft of CVEs did direct air support from 28 to 31 March 1945. They attacked batteries in th south, 10 biriges near the Nagasugusu Bay and released 15 napalm bombs at installation near the Hijya Creek. They kept on attacks at airfields and IJN bases.
DOA, p77

Marines and Army fighters
P-47N ferry Hawaii - Saipan
DepartureDestination Milemph
HawaiiJohnston 825183
JohnstonMajuro 1,400200
MajuroEniwetok 800229
EniwetokSaipan 1,150230
4 CVEs ferried MAG-31 (Marine Aircraft Group 31) and MAG-33 on 4 April. 192 F4U and 30 F6F were activated at Kita-yomitan and Naka-yara on 9 April.
Dai 5 kantai no zenyou

USAAF fighters flew to Yomitan airfields on 7 April, and Kadena on 9 May. The 318th FG (P-47) might act in Iejima on 10 May. The 507th FG (P-47) moved to Iejima on 28 June. 35th FG moved to Okinawa in June. 49th FG moved to Okinawa in August. P-47N of the 318th FG ferried to Saipan from Hawaii as follows. The P-47 might fly 2,306km (1,432mi) from Saipan (15.2N, 145.7E) to Iejima (26.7N, 127.2E) probably. A B-25 guided them. While A ferry of 1300km (813mi) between Truk7.47N, 151.83E) and Rabaul4.22N, 151.83E) was dangerous for IJA 3 shiki-sen (Tony) in 1943.
World War II on Iejima
US Army Air Forces in Okinawa

Japan lose air control over Yaku Island
IJA fighter Frank could not escort beyond Yoron Island because of the short range. So most of IJA suicide aircraft were escorted by IJN. In the beginning of Okinawa battle, US fighters advanced Amami Islands. Sooner or later they advacened Yaku Island. USN and IJN flew fighters at night in Okinawa. It does not seem that USAAF and IJA did not action night fighter operations both. Enemy fighters from Iejima flew constant over Yakushima in May 1945.
Iwamoto, p389

Japanese and US loss after Okinawa Battle
US Army and Marines lost 763 aircraft in the Okinawa Battle. 458 of 763 were lost in air combats. 305 of 763 were lost in operations. 536 USN crews were lost in KIA or MIA. While IJA and IJN flew 9,837 sorties and lost 2,803 aircraft in air.
DOA Okinawa, p519
Iwamoto, p359
Watanabe, p368
Hashimoto, p289
Gunzo, p47 No65

[1] Torikai
[2] USN shell mass of guns
[3] The United States Marines in North China
[4] Wedmeyer p.238-240

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