Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific|
This page contains kanji charcters.
|Japanese amphibous campaings|
Shanghai Incident (Jan - Mar 1932)|
Japanese Marine, troops of 1,876 collied with Chinese private troops in Shanghai on 29 January 1932. Minister Shigemitsu requested IJA dispatch on 1 February. Japanese Cabinet held a meeting on 2 February. Makino and Takahashi disagreed and proposed withdraw of Japanese people. But the cabinet decided expedition. Japan had to dispatch troops in large scale. IJN dispatched aircraft carrier Kaga and Hosyo in action at first. Aerial combat was done. Under a commision of British minister, Murai minister told Mayor of Shangnai that Ueda demanded 20 km withdrawal of Chinese troops on 18 February. See the map. The Chinese troops had already made 3 layer-zones of defence. Each zone were a few lines of a trench. They were WWI type positions. Japanese army began attack with artillery and tanks on 20 February. Japanese army stopped the first offense on 22 February, though IJN supplied with 1.2 million ammo of rifles, 260 thousand ammo of machine guns and 4 thousand ammo of guns. The second offence began on 25 February, and could not break the first front.
Gunzo, p36-49 No.90
Shanghai Incident (1932)
Jan30 Aircraft carrier Kaga and Sawakaze arrived at Maanshan Islands
Jan31 Enemy repeated attacks
----- 17 aircraft of Kaga flew over Shanghai
Feb01 Aircraft carrier Hosyo and 2nd Destroyer Squadron arrived at Maanshan Islands
Feb22 An enemy Boeing-218 shot down a Mitsubishi 13shiki-3go kanko. 3 Nakajima 3shiki-2go kansen shot down it at Suzhou
Although Japan got a military win, Japan failed in diplomatic relation with League of Nations. Japan lost European nations support except for Uk.
|Qinhuangdao of US Marines in 1945|
US thought that one inherits legitimation of China who controls Central Plain as well as Japan did. But it was not true under nationalism in China.
|Okinawa battle of USN in November 1944 - June 1945|
USN and USA planned Taiwan invasion in 1944 originally. They were to invade in spring 1945. USN organized and did the last amphibious operation in the Pacific War. Japanese operation sections of general staff of IJA and IJA could not recognize US invasion direction whether Taiwan or Okinawa as Mariana battle did, though intelligence of IJA and IJN predicted the direction correctly. It seemed both general staff of IJA and IJN were not smart but dogmatic. Rather bureaucratic military officers did not depend intelligence but their learned strategy. A few staffs of intelligence called it a dogmatic operation. Japan had lost 4,500 troop of Dokuritsu konsei 44 ryodan by US submarines in June 1944. And IJA pulled out Dai 9 Shidan (9th Division) from Okinawa to Taiwan in November. So IJA armament decreased two-thirds in Okinawa.|
1944Oct05 Nimitz informed cancel of Taiwan invasion to all the armies in the Pacific
Preparation before landing
Air raid for destroying enemy air force
Finally Japan estimated that enemy would land on Okinawa in Mar the first of 1945. The IJN 5th Air fleet (580 aircraft) in Kyushu fought with Task Group 58(TG-58), lost 128 aircraft on 18 and 19 March. The TG-58 refueld, got food and exchanged aviators and aircraft at the sea of the south of Okinawa on 22 March. The TG-58 and escort aircaft carriers did 3,095 sorties. On 26 March US Army began landing Kerama Islands to get seaplanes base and anchorage area for invading fleet. The map shows the Kerama Islands which was splitted into two straits called Kerama Strait and Aka Strait. The depth of the straits is 13 hiro to 37 hiro (hiro = 1.8m). The coasts are 44 natural ports. 77th Division landed on the Kerama Islands 15 times.
Start up landing clock
USS Ashland (LSD-1) touched at Samar on 1 July to embark PT boats and their crews for transportation to Kerama Retto. The ship sailed on 3 July, unloaded her charges, and returned to Leyte on 10 July. She shuttled a similar cargo to Okinawa soon.
USS Epping Forest (LSD-4) arrived off the Hagushi beaches 1 April 1945 for the invasion of Okinawa, and during the days of bitter fighting, repaired landing craft at various anchorages around the island. She worked with the skill of long practice under air attacks and the constant threat of enemy suicide attacks by small boats and swimmers as well as aircraft.
USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5) remained anchored at nearby Kerama Retto until 1 July to repair small craft. She was untouched by the enemy's fierce kamikaze attacks although she saw several other American ships hit and crippled.
USS Lindenwald (LSD-6) sailed due north from San Pedro Bay, Leyte, for Okinawa on 26 March and arrived 1 April. She remained off Okinawa for 92 days, docking, repairing, and servicing landing craft damaged by enemy gunfire or the heavy surf. During this period, the ship repaired 452 boats. Enemy harassment twice threatened to cut short her busy career. Early morning 27 May, after suicide planes crashed two sister auxiliary ships, Lindenwald splashed an enemy aircraft before it could crash nearby Carina. Two weeks later, a murderous barrage from Lindenwald diverted an incoming suicide plane just enough to escape disaster. It barely missed the radar mast and splashed 500 yards off the bow.
USS Oak Hill (LSD-7) rehearsed with units of the 1st Marine Division for her next operation, the Okinawa campaign. On 1 April, she arrived in transport area Baker, lowered her LCMs for the assault on Blue Beach and then began repairing landing craft. Through the end of May, she remained in the Hagushi area for repair duties. Then she transported Marines and tanks to Iheya Shima and to Aguni Shima before steaming back to Leyte, 10 June. For the remainder of the war, Oak Hill transported men and equipment from the central Pacific to the Philippines and Okinawa.
USS White Marsh (LSD-8) and her division mates arrived off Okinawa during the night of 31 March - 1 April. Early in the morning, she disembarked her troops for the landings on Okinawa. Once again, after completing the disembarkation process, the dock landing ship anchored and began landing craft repair duty. Throughout her two-month stay at Okinawa, enemy air activity was heavy, but White Marsh only engaged Japanese aircraft on three occasions - on 6, 12, and 15 April - and claimed hits on two of the attackers. On 3 June, the ship departed Okinawa and proceeded to Leyte. She entered San Pedro Bay on 8 June and remained there for three days. On the 11th, the ship moved to Manicani Island where she loaded six motor torpedo boats and their crews for transportation to Okinawa. She left Manicani on 15 June and arrived in Kerama Retto on the 19th. She discharged cargo and personnel during the next two days and began a voyage to the Philippines on the 22d.
USS Casa Grande (LSD-13) next cruised among the Solomons to load Marines, landing craft, and tanks for the invasion of Okinawa. She took departure from Ulithi on 26 March, and arrived off Okinawa at dawn of 1 April. Landing equipment and troops under the first of the kamikaze attacks which were to bathe the Okinawa operation in blood, she moved to Kerama Retto on 4 April to operate a small boat repair shop there until 3 June, when she sailed for a minor overhaul at Leyte.
USS Cabildo (LSD-16) carried out her duties of docking and repairing small craft, transporting amphibious craft, and operating boat-pools at Guam and Okinawa in July.
0745 aircarft released napam bombs on beach and trenches
0800 a first group of Amphibious tanks and trucks ran offshore 360m
0815 first formation near their mother ships
0820 the first line ran
0830 the line ashored
Battleship Colorado destroyed 2 anti tank artillery postions on 14 May. USN began bombardment on 25 March. USS Nevada and West Virginia were salveged at Pearl Harbor and came back gun fire operations. USS Arkansas (BB-33) was the oldest battleship of 33-year-old among the battery group. USS Tennessee (BB-43) was eqwipped with 56 40mm Bofors guns for AA combat. They spent shells of 13,000 (15-40cm) during 7 days. It weighed 5,162t by 10 battle ships and 10 cruisers, including 12cm shells. IJA knew gun power of warships. The total number of main guns of battleships and cruisers was 194. Mass of each gun was known. All the guns of fire power was 68.3t at a time. Torikai shows rounds number, so I check up the total mass. However, the numbers is not matching.
I calculated average rounds and used ratio of each guns. 36 cm and 15 cm guns showed high ratio. I do not know why 40 cm and 20 cm guns fired fewer. USN might plan that other warships would fire, when the light cruisers and the 36 cm battleships would retreat for ammunition.
TG58 air raid airfields of Kyushu
CAP and ASW of TG52
Another data shows that 20 CVEs took part in the Okinawa Battle and they carried 302 FM-2. After the battle, USS Lunga point (CVE-94) patrolled on 1 August in the west of Okinawa. 4 FM-2 intercepted at 1710. One of FM-2 shot down a Frances. This was the last kill of FM-2 in the Pacific War.
3 submarines of IJN tried to attack a ferry route in the east of Okinawa. 4 submarines were equipped Kaitens and planned to attack ships at anchor. USN did ASW perfect.
Aircaft of CVEs did direct air support from 28 to 31 March 1945. They attacked batteries in th south, 10 biriges near the Nagasugusu Bay and released 15 napalm bombs at installation near the Hijya Creek. They kept on attacks at airfields and IJN bases.
Marines and Army fighters
Dai 5 kantai no zenyou
USAAF fighters flew to Yomitan airfields on 7 April, and Kadena on 9 May. The 318th FG (P-47) might act in Iejima on 10 May. The 507th FG (P-47) moved to Iejima on 28 June. 35th FG moved to Okinawa in June. 49th FG moved to Okinawa in August. P-47N of the 318th FG ferried to Saipan from Hawaii as follows. The P-47 might fly 2,306km (1,432mi) from Saipan (15.2N, 145.7E) to Iejima (26.7N, 127.2E) probably. A B-25 guided them. While A ferry of 1300km (813mi) between Truk¡Ê7.47N, 151.83E) and Rabaul¡Ê4.22N, 151.83E) was dangerous for IJA 3 shiki-sen (Tony) in 1943.
Japan lose air control over Yaku Island
Japanese and US loss after Okinawa Battle
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