Japan meets the West
Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific

Map of Japan printed in 1595
Portuguese ships came to Kyushu in the late of 16th century. They used a voyage route that Japanese and Chinese merchants communicated between Luzon and Ryukyu (Okinawa). Their aim was to get silver in Japan. Silver was the most important currency in China. Western merchants could buy anything they wanted in China for silver. The map shows a silver mine in Japan which was printed in Antwerp in 1595[11]. A dutch ship came to Bungo on 19 April 1600. The ship was called Liefde. William Adams was a navigator of the Liefde. The Liefde crossed the Pacific Ocean not so as to encounter hostile Portgues and Spanish ships. Hashimoto supposed how the Liefde sighted islands of Japan considering moutains height[12].

Japanese people were curious western culture and weapon in the 16th century. Japanese lords enjoyed byoubu paintings of western ships or something. These sites are some examples in museums.

    Kyushu National Museums
    National Museum of Japanese History
    Kobe City Museum
A Church in Kyoto
A Church in Kyoto
A church was built in Kyoto in 1567. Japanese people called it Nanbanji. Lord Oda Nobunaka approved building it. The picture was used for a Japanese fan originally. Sucessor of Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi was advised by Portgul mission that Spain would conquer Japan after sending Christian missions like the Philippines. So Hideyoshi and Ieyasu banned Chrisianiy all over Japan, though they hoped trade conventionally. But a revolt in Shimabara in Kyushu occurred fully controlled trade, sakoku in Shogunate Tokugawa Iemitsu.
Oda Nobunaga(1534-1582)
Tokugawa Iemitsu(1604-1651)

Spain failed to keep Netherlands Although Meiji Government allowed Christianity carefully because they remebered Amakusa or Shimabara Revolt in 1637, the Christianity did not spread wide like the 16th century. Educated commons in terakoya were not interested in a strange religion, 'the hope of the resurrection of the dead' any more.

A Russian ship leaving Nagasaki
A flag of double-headed eagle
New waves of imperialism propagated to Japan in 19th century. One of them was Russia, and the other was US. China had to learn challage of old Imperialism UK and France. Japan had to learn threats of new comers, Russia and US. Both nations were super powers after WWII. A painter of Japan showed a russian ship departure from Nagasaki. Rezanov was on the ship. Government held him for 4 months in Nagasaki. It seems that the painter was interested in a flag of Russia. He knew nothing probably about the origin of the flag, double-headed eagle, the Empire of Rome. While the symbol of the US is a eagle. It seems the Roman Empire was a kind of Russian and American origin. The spirit of the Christianity became a mother of communism and capitalism.
Russian ship syukko no zu
Nikolai Rezanov(1764-1807)

Western community
Japan became a competitor of them in 1904 and 1941. US and Russia broke up the military power of Japan in 1945 after all. Japan would compete with them without knowing their spirit deep. Japan missed why US and Russia grew a power. Japan ignored that both of the roots were Christianity. The Chiristinanity had splendid wisdom to control people, and it soothed wild sentiment in a sense.

The Christians persuade neighbors to preach. And people began a dialogue. They gathered and prayed in a church, at first. Christian monks mediated eternal life and prepared modern science. Citizens gradually developed various communities in their town. The modern community is a mother of innovation. There is no such a community in a Japanese town, though a community called 'yui' in a village.

 Catholic in Edo era
Secret portrait for 400 years
Francisco de Xavier
A portrait of Francisco de Xavier was discovered in 1919 at Ikeda where is located in Hyogo. Once Ikeda was called Settsu. Chiristian Daimyo Takayama Ukon was lord of Settsu.[1] A family in Settsu inhertited the secret of fathers of fathers in chained generation almost 400 years there. Such people were called Kakure Kirishitan.[3]

There were 200 churches of Jesuit in Japan in 1614. The Christians were 200 thousand to 300thousand. Including Spanish churches, The total Christians were 370-500 thousand. Considering population in those days, the ratio of Christians is almost the same of 3.0% in 1980.A missionary reached Matsumae, Hokkaido nowdays in 1618.[2] He wrote a letter with a map to Makao. Ieyasu omitted a kind of Buddism, 日蓮宗不受不施派 as well as Chritianity. He wrote Mexico a letter to request ban of Christianity in 1612.

Revolt of Shimabara
The revoltJoan's
Christianity was banned in Japan after desperate Catholic revolt in Amakusa. The right photo is the standard of the revolt. They fought desperate war under the flag and a symbolic 16-year-old boy in 1637.[5] The standard is very different from traditional Japanese style. I think that a Western monk or someone suggested to Joan of Arc. Pureness of youth stirred minds among people in depression. The elders uses innocence of people whenever they are losing. After the revolt, a few people had believed in the belief had prayed underground in father-to-father.

The revolt occurred in December 1637. The revolted people choiced Hara Castle as pocket. Hara Castle was rebuilt by Christian Daimyo Arima Harunobu in 1599. Kumamot han hunted a leader of the revolt, Masuda Jinbei who was father of Amakusa Shiro.[6] Jinbei went to Nagasaki for help. The rebels might hope military help of Portugal. They shouted, "Santiago!" at combat. It was the same of Portiguish warriors. But a Dutch ship came and fired. Commander Matsudaira Nobutsuna said to Hosokawa Tadatoshi,
There was a battle off Goa between Portugal and Netherland on 5 February 1638. Bakufu was not interested in sea power in the East of China Sea, though Bakufu requested that VOC would attack Philippines a few times. Dutch and British ships attacked Chinese ships in the sea.
Chinese and Western ships came to trade at Nagasaki, The population of Nagasaki increased more and more. The table shows the numbers.[4] All most of the inhabitants were Christians. Converted people were 9,369 in 1658.
The revolt excited some novelists in Japan, for example, Shibata Renzaburou, Endo Shusaku and Matsumoto Seicho.[7][8][9]

There was no Bakufu's military action for 200 years since The Shimabara Revolt.

[1] Takayama Ukon
[2] Kakure Kirishitan
[3] Edo bakufu, p63-64
[4] Edo bakufu, p35
[5] Shimabara Rebellion
[6] Amakusa Shiro
[7] Nemuri Kyoushiro
[8] Silence
[9] Dark gospel
[11] Iwami Silvermine Museum
[12] Maegaki

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