Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific|
| Fuel for warships|
Year replaced for oil
IJN warships fueld British good coal shipped from Cardiff in Japanese-Russo War. The Russian Baltic Fleet burned Japanese coal to cost down ironically. The fleet steamed much black smoke than Japanese fleet. Soon IJN transferred to coal briquette after the war. The technology was developed in France. IJN built a big coal briquette factory in Tokuyama. The Great Fleet fueld coal and came to Japan in 1908. Sailors had to carry coal in the warships in ports with hard work. IJN battleship Satuma burned mix of coal and oil, which loaded 2,860t coal and 377t oil, and was commissioned on 25 Mar 1905. IJN launched Cruiser Ikoma equiped with boilers for coal and oil each on 24 March 1906. IJN launched Kawachi equiped with boilers for oil only. IJN bought oil from Rising Sun Co. in 1912. Fuel of all the IJN warships were to transfer in 1929. IJN Nara class destroyers were installed with two boilers for coal and oil each. Kawakaze class destroyers adopted four boilers for oil in IJN destoryers. Urakaze was launched in UK on 14 September 1915. Destroyer Kawakaze II was equiped with four boilers for oil and launched in Yokosuka Arsenal on 11 November 1918.
|Year||Battleships or Carriers|
|1935||Fuso and Yamashiro, Kaga|
|1936||Nagato and Mutsu|
|1937||Ise and Hyuga|
|1938||Kongo and Haruna, Akagi|
While USN had commssioned battleship Nevada (BB-36) equiped with boilers for oil only on 11 March 1916. Battleship New York (BB-34) and Texus (BB-35) replaced boilers for oil from 1925 to 1927. USN battleships had run by oil in 1930s. It is easy to refuel oil than coal from oiler. So I think that USN could communicate Hawaii Guam, Philippines across the Pacific with a lots of oilers and a few of aircraft carriers, if IJN challanged a battle before 1935. While IJN aircraft carrier Akagi could not refuel on sea till 1938 because Kaga adopted two kinds of boilers for coal and oil each. With out oil, Kaga could not run at full speed. US always has paid attention to Europe across the Atlantic first.
I think Japan has to make effort to have deeper relation with US now. Japan cannot live on peace without free sea under mighty sea power.
| Anxiety of oil shortage|
Tbl.1 Oil export in 1938
|Dutch East India||45,026||7.3%|
Tbl.2 Domestic consumed heavy oil [kbbl] ([kbbl]/day)
Fuel of IJN depended on 70 % from US. The rest of it from Dutch Eas India in 1920s. Okada Cabinet declared denunciation of Wasington Treaty on 29 December 1934. Okada was an admiral. IJN imported oil from Russia instead of Dutch East India in 1930s. Thinking of oil, why did Japan shake hands with Germany? All most of oil export nations were intimate to UK and US. Targets of Japan and Germany were Dutch East India and Romania each. The Dutch East India producted 10,902,222 kL and 10,904,762 in 1939 and 1940. Japan spent 2.993 Mbbl ( 476,000 kL ) in domestic land in 1937. If IJA occupied, oil shortage issue would resolve. But Japan did not prepare tankers to transport. IJN did not think of USN submarine operation serious. Japan failed the south operation, though Japan continued to occupy Borneo and Java till the end of the Pacific War.
IJA organized a survey team to search for natural resources in Manchuria in June 1932. The leader of the team was an IJN expert of oil. The team did not study others surveys and old Chinese literature. A survey of Bank of Japan had reported two oil wells in 1917. The wells were located in Taikei (Daqing Field). Shen Kuo wrote oil in his book. The oil fields were found by Chinese engineers in 1959. Chinese leaders could make decision to be independent from Russia, as China got oil. Japan missed an oil field in the mid of Manchuria!
IJA stationed troops in the south of French Indochina to stop arms transport from USA on 28 July 1941. US imposed overall embargo of oil on Japan on 1 August. Japan had imported 80% of spending oil in domestic from US, 10% of East India of Netherlands in 1941. The remains were from Mexico, Bahrain, Romania, etc. Tbl.1 shows oil export of main nations in the world. USA shared 30% in the world.
Nagano, CNO of IJN told that IJN were spending 400t of oil per hour on 23 October 1941 in a meeting with Tojo Cabinet. IJN spent 14.30 kbbl per day in 1940 fiscal year as shown in Tbl.2 14.30 kbbl is equivalent 2.274 kL, and 94.8 kL per hour only. Density of oil may be 1 nearly. So IJN spent oil of 95t per hour in 1940. IJN insisted that warships did not work because of oil shortage in 2 years. I think Navy Minsitry knew the correct spending rate. Nagano told much oil spending rate of 4 folds to open a fire against US. After all, Nagano told Prime Minister Tojo wrong important information. I think IJN wanted the Pacific War at least. IJN sometimes told IJA wrong informations during the Pacific War for IJN operations.
Tbl.3 Loss or use of crude oil in the south [kbbl] (kbbl/day)
USN sank oil tankers of Japan in the Pacific War. As a result, Japan failed to import of oil to the mainland. Tbl.3 shows production and import of oil. The subtraction means a spent amount or loss in the south of the Pacific. Prime Minister Tojo inspected installations of Palembang in July 1943. Though Japan announced to resolve oil shortage in 1943, The import was only 34% in 1944, comparing with the previous year, and was 74% compared with 1940.
IJN carrier strike groups with 2nd Koku Sentai and 3rd Koku Sentai steamed out of Honshu Seikai to Tawi-tawi on 16 May 1944 because oil was in short supply. But USN invaded Mariana as first than Philippines. Distance between Mariana and Japan mainland is shorter than distance between Tawi-tawi and Mariana. After all, IJN fast excellent oilers were lost in 1944.
IJN stopped running warships spending more than 12,000t of fuel per month in Japan in February 1945. This meant that IJN would be unable to work battleships and cruisers. So GF regrouped a fleet of a bttleship and 5 destroyers on 1 April, when USN invaded Okinawa. GF told a staff of escorting merchant ships to cut off 4,000t of fuel for Yamato on 6 April. Yamato had docked as follows in 1944 and 1945,
1944Jan10 Arrived at Kure from Truk
GF decided not to feed Yamato enough to go back. This meant that the operation was a suicide mission. But Yamato did not pull out fuel actually. Destoryers were full of fuel. The fleet might have 10,000t of fuel. 10,000t fuel is 11,800 kL ( 74 kbbl). IJN spent 1,824 kbbl in April to September 1945. The mission spent 4 % of 1,824 kbbl. IJN had only 250,000 kL ( 1,572 kbbl ) in the end of the Pacific War. IJN had 21,717 kbbl of stock in January 1942. The stock was 1,817 kbbl on 1 April and 794 kbbl on 1 July 1945.
1944Jan28 Docked in
1944Feb03 Docked out
1944Feb25 Docked in
1944Mar18 Docked out
1944Nov23 Arrived at Kure from Burnei
1944Nov24 Docked in
1945Jan03 Docked out
1945Mar19 Arrived off Mitajiri
1945Apr06 Went on mission of Ten-go operation
1945Apr07 Sank at 1425
Destroyer Fuyuzuki, Ryouzuki, Hamakaze and Yukikaze came back to Sasebo on 8 April.
| Nations declared war on Japan|
Government passed the last memorandum to the US. All the oil export nations declared war on Japan, though Government of Japan declared the Pacific War for self-existence and self-defense.
Oil export nations are shown in block charaters.
US, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, Colombia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Dominica, Nicaragua, Haiti, Guatemala, Honduras declared war on Japan on 8 December 1941. China and Panama declared on 9 December. Netherlands, Cuba and Belgium declared on 10 December.
Tai-nichi Sensen Fukoku-koku
Participants in WWII
Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific|
| Charcoal bus|
Gasoline shares in Japan
Japan was dependent on gasolin imported from US before the Pacific War. Government limited usage of gasolin in merchant or civil fields in 1941. So buses or taxies were modified to run by burning charcoal fuel. The merchant fields was 80.4% share, 6.323 million bbl in 1940 year. The table shows change of comsumption and merchant share of gasoline. The comsumption for merchant use decreased 1/40 sharply in the Pacific War.
Hinkoku, p108, p124-126
Hokkaido Bus Association
| Import and production|
Refined oil of Japan [kbbl]
Japan always worried about shortage of gasoline in the Pacific War. The table shows the import and the production of gasloine etc. US banned export of high quality aviation gasoline in December 1939 and low quality gasoline (less than 87 octane) in Jul 1940.
IJA Tokuyama oil refinery plant suceeded in production of 92 octane aviation gasoline in March 1937. IJA Yokkaichi oil refinery accomplished a crude distillation unit in June 1941. IJA Mancuria oil refinery plant succeeded in production of 92.6 aviation gasoline in September 1944.
Sale of oil [ML]
Japan occupied Java in 1942. So occupied oil plants of Palembang began export of gasoline to Japan. The export of gasoline increased in 1943. But it decreased again because oil tankers were sunk by US submrines and aircraft in 1944. IJA Iwakuni oil refinery plant began to produce gasoline in 1943. But the plant could not work well because of shortage of imported oil in the end of 1944. The last two oil tanker from the south entered Tokuyama Port on Mar 1945. But 112 B-29s released 500lb bombs of 549t on 10 May 1945. 40% of the bombs hit it and destroyed. IJA had stock of 300kL (1,887bbl) aviation gasoline only in the end of the Pacific War.
 Hinkoku, p31
 Hinkoku, p107
 Ishii, p196
 Hinkoku, p119
 Oui, p362
 Katamichi nenryou
 Ishii, p216
 米国軍艦 機関部 data
 Ishii, p40-42
 Enomoto ( 1894-1987 )
 Ishi, p50
 Hinkoku, p109-110
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