Three brave soldiers (San yusi)|
A statue of 3 braves
Japan and China occurred Shanghai Incident on 29 January 1932. IJA landed 8,000 troops on Shanghai on 14 February. China made positions and had 55,000 troops. But IJA had a lot of guns. IJA troubled to attack Byoukouchin (廟巷鎮) on 21 February. 3 soldiers were killed then. Major newspapers dispatched correspondents to the war front. They were looking for an article that people were interested in. Mainichi Newspaper, Asahi and Yomiuri were competitive to sell newspapers hard. The newspapers praised 3 soldiers and called them Bakudan san-yusi (爆弾三勇士) or Nikudan san-yusi (肉弾三勇士). The newspapers wrote on 24 February as follows,
In fact, an officer ordered troops to destroy wire obstacles. A surgent ordered 35 soldiers carrying a bomb with a fired fuse. A target was 33m ahead. 3 soldiers got out 15m. One of the 3 soldiers fell and the others fell down. They tried running away. Mr. A said, "Go ahead for Mikado and Mother land." They turned out and the bomb burst.
- Osaka Asahi : 'Korezo shin (真) no Nikudan (肉弾)! Souretsu muhi (壮烈無比) no Bakushi (爆死), shigan (志願) shite Bakudan (爆弾) wo minitsuke Tetsujyoumou (鉄条網) wo hakai (破壊) sita 3 Yusi (勇士)'
- Tokyo Asahi : '"Teikoku banzai (帝国万歳)" wo sakende Koppamijin (木端微塵), 3 Kouhei (工兵) tenka (点火) seru Bakudan (爆弾) wo daki, Tetsujyoumou ni odorikomu'
- Tokyo Mainichi : 'Sekaihi (世界比) ariya kono Kihaku (気魄), tenka (点火) Bakudan (爆弾) wo daki Tetsujyoumou (鉄条網) wo bakuha (爆破) su, Byoukouchin (廟巷鎮) kougeki (攻撃) no 3 Yushi (勇士)'
- Osaka Mainichi : 'Nikudan (肉弾) de Tetsujyoumou wo gekiha (撃破) su, tenka (点火) sita Bakudan (爆弾) wo minituke, yakusin (躍進) shita 3 nin no 1 touhei (等兵), churetsu (忠烈) masani funkotsusaisin (粉骨砕身)'
This propaganda was the beginning of national fanatic tension and the end. The 3 braves lead a way to desperate suicide attacks.
Gunzo, p24-27 No.90
Contest to kill 100 people using a sword
US declared two presecuted IJA officers in Tokyo, but Chinese justice declared guilty
Yamamoto shichihei analyzed the articles of the incident.
The article of Mainichi Newspaper published that Noda age of 25 killed 4 soldiers at a beton off 8km of 無錫 in a combat at one night on 30 November. I also do not think that the Japanese sword could endure the individual combat. He might not be under combat because he was lieutenant commander. His commander was Katagiri (片桐). Noda might kill strained POWs. I think that he needed not cut down POW's neck. If he cut a big blood vessel of POW in neck, the POW would die soon. The action would be guilty by Japanese military justice. But did the officer kill POWs without cooperating petty officers? Returning to Japan, Noda talked about his kill of POW in a lecture. He did not have any subordinates. He might order any other petty officers to strain a POW. But did a lieutenant of the petty officer allow to go beyond the lieutenant's commission? I cannot believe such situation. Along with Katagiri's approval, the killing would be not possible near the beton but Katagiri's positon. It seems that lieutenant commander Noda would kill a few POWs with fun. He might enjoy cutting the strained POWs' blood vessel with his sword. Why didn't IJA investigate the incident? Did IJA ignore or admit to kill POWs with fun?
As for artillery officer Mukaida, if Katagiri would order to kill POW, why Mukaida was the most subordinate officer? Were infantry troop busy? IJA artillery troop did not carry rifles. Did Mukaida's artillery watch POWs without rifles? So did the artillery stab the POWs?
The article of Mainichi Newspaper was not true about artillery officer Mukaida. The propaganda article of "Contest to kill 100 people using a sword" effects historical issue with Japan and China even now.
Recently a minister of MITI quited because of press articles. Journalist N of Mainich would not approve the incident. I found that there is a serious journalist in Mainichi Newspaper now.
It was certain that IJN and IJA were not interested in treating POWs after 1930s. IJA and IJN did not agree to ratify the Geneva Convection of 1929 in 1934, though MOFA recommend to ratify it.
Humanism or pessimism
Our Japanese daily life looks alike Westerns, I think. Why could we do silly suicide operations? Naito wrote his opinion. I think sects and communitiy in Western nations. We tried to accept modernization. Is The true civilization is humanism based on human rights among various communities, is not it? We have not been able to control selfish nationalism well. I was structed, when I read Ohnishi's the last message. There is somthing like a kind of tears and sympathy to disturb Japanese heart. Jpanese people have had a sentiment of pessimism. We loved 'Heike monogatari' since Kamakura era. It was the first national literature for people. Tale of Genji was not for commons. Heike monogatari is not the history of winner but of loser. Commons have liked suicide stories for forbidden love since Edo era. We did not see the world the way we were at hard modern times. What is humanism? Without conflict of Chritianity, Japanese people have not understood humanism deep yet, maybe. So suicide propaganda spread among people especially women.
National spiritual movement was actioned. Prime Minister, Konoe Fumimaro was very eager.
Teachers were most cooperative with the movement. They taught their pupils to die for Mikado.
Kokutai no hongi
the Japanese-Russo War counted 2,088 POWs of IJA. Although IJA inquired them, none was court-martial. Some of them got an hornerd medal. Why did IJA change how to be soldiers?
Army Ministry published a new war code called Senjin-kun on 8 January in 1941. It said, "Do not be a POW with shame." Military leaders guessed that Japan would defeat at early stage if soldiers were allowed to be POWs. Highly ranked military officers did not trust common soldiers. They did not have common sense each other. It was likely that feudal lords did not trust their pesants and peasants also were not cooperative with lords. IJA and IJN could not soldiers as individual characters. They had to govern soldiers with authority and power. It seems that IJA officers ordered and drove enlisted soldiers useless banzai-charges to die, however we do not know the truth because they died. But it is a fact that many officers were POWS after the banzai-charges. There were no court-marital by IJA after the war, though they returned to home.
A few IJA officers had been criticized, when they were POWs at the Japanese-Chinese War in 1930s. Yamamoto was drafted as an auxiliary IJA officer in the Pacific War. He wrote that all the soldiers had not read Senjin-kun in his troop.
Tojo, Army Minister failed to kill himself at home on an arrest by US Army, he died of insulted death hanging on Crown Prince Akihito's birthday anniversary. Japan is to salute memorial execution every year on Dec 23 in Mikado Akihito ironically.
Newspapers also were cooperative the movement. At last the newspapers praised suicide attacks everyday. The madness governed Japan during the Pacific War.
But black markets were widespread becasue of shortage of food provision. The spiritual movement could not win hungers of civils and military service men. Domestic IJA soldiers' crimes increased yearly. The true governer class like Konoe were afraid of unification between ultra right wing military movement and communism. So the Suzuki Cabinet accepted surrender on Aug 1945. The ruler class was fear of a kind of Russian Revolution, I think. In fact, armored Russian army and its aircraft destroyed IJA in Manchuria in a week only, while IJA could delay US Army invasions in Okinawa and Iwojima a few month.
Students were omitted from military service at the beginning of the Pacific War. But Government drafted students. A lots of students gathered at Jingu Park on 21 October 1943. The ceremony was a national memory. All the student sang national antham 'Umiyukaga'. Whenever I listen to their voice, my tears erupts. I cannot explain it well. The sentiment might be originated since our national literature 'Heike monogatari'.|
Prime Minister Tojo also attended it. Some students volunteered suicide attacks in an official military history. In fact, IJN had already designed manned suicide weapons and manufactured a lot of suicide weapons in IJN arsenals. IJNGS used them like guided torpedos or flying bombs. The staffs and high ranking officers of IJN passed away on peace after the war. One of them became a member of House of Councillors.
There were nine imperial universities in the Pacific War which were Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Nagoya, Tohoku, Kyushu, Taihoku (Taipei), Keijyo (Seoul) and Hokkaido and 32 other universities excluding medical colleges. How many students from imperial universities were KIA by IJN suicide attack operations? 358 students were KIA by the IJN operaion. Suicide student ratio from imperial universities was 13% of total universities students. 47 students from imperial universities were KIA. The table shows KIA students of imperial universities. There was no student from Osaka Imperial University. Osaka, Nagoya and Hokkaido Imperial University did not have law faculty. Only Tokyo and Kyoto University are the same average of 32 other universities. Personnel section of IJA and IJN how kind of students selected for suicide operations, didn't they? Although Korea abolished Keijyo University, Taiwan inherited Taihoku University. How is the university? I show THE-QS World Universities Ranking in 2009. Soul National University is ranked 47th.
Imai, p102-105, p111-112
Senze no Gakko Seido
Education Ministry also established junior colleges for industries. 80 students from those were KIA by IJN suicide operations. The IJN suicide student numbers from such colleges are shown in Tbl-108.
Design and trial|
Naito wrote an action report of USS Belleau Wood, CVL-24 on Mar 21st 1945 simply in his book.
1347 Radar sighted unknown aircraft
1448 Finished Fighers landing
1457 Radar screen cleared
I felt their sucide attackers'munen. The crews of 160 were lost on the day inculding carried Betties and escorted fighters.
Who approved a sucide bomb plan that a Betty hung it under the belly? Totsuka Michitaro was a Koku honbucho of IJN from December 1942 to the end of April 1945. The desing was done in IJN air arsenal in Kanagawa and University of Tokyo. The propulsion was a liquid rocket engine in the original proposal. The photo shows a rocket engine for another trial rocket plane.
A head of IJNGS was very interested in an idea of airborne sucide weapon from Genda's explanation. The report was held in a meeting on 5 August. Oikawa, a new chief of IJNGS approved the weapon development. IJNGS requested Kouku HQ to make the weapon. The Koku HQ ordered Koku gijyutu-shou to make 100 trials till the end of October and called them code name Marudai buhin.
The marudai buhin was called MXY7 in the Koku gijyutu-sho. Miki Tadanao was a chief designer. Hattori Rokurou was a structure designer. Washizu Kyuichirou was an computational analyst. They finished basic design in a week. The Koku Gijyutu-sho changed an engine for poweder fuel. The design of propulsion time of MXY7 was less than 10 seconds. It was to load with 3 rockets of thrust 800kgf in the tail and 2 another rockets of thrust 400kgf under both of the wing at first. The bomb has an armored plate behind pilot and floor. The table shows the specification of design. Science section did a wind tunnel experiment on 25 August. Washizu computed basic characteristics from the experiment. The maximum gliding speed was 350kt. The crusing gliding speed was 250kt. The range was 10 folds of released altitude. The attack angle was 5.7deg only. IJNGS judged that the range was 5 folds of the released altitude. The Koku gijyutsu-syou suggested to escort fighters enough to defend Betty. I do not know why IJNGS and Kouku HQ judged the weapon reasonable. Tada Takeo was Gunmu kyokucho of IJN from August 1944 to May 1945. Deputy minister of IJN was Inoue Shigemi from August 1944 to May 1945. And Minister of IJN was Yonai Mitumasa from July 1944 to November 1945. The koku HQ ordered Koku gijyutu-sho 100 MXY7 by the end of November. IJN Kure Arsenal designed and productioned warheads of MXY7.
The 721st Kokutai was established mainly for air suicide attack. It was equipped with Betty, Zero and Ouka (MXY7). IJN ordered Okamura a chief for preparing Marudai buhin troop on 15 September at Yokosuka. The troop used a gliding manned bomb called marudai buhin or Ouka. However, Mother aircarft carrying the winged bomb was too slow to access near targets. The first operation failed on 21st Mar 1945. So the 721st Kokutai transferred pilots of escort fighters to sucide pilots. They rode Zeros loaded a 500kg bomb. IJN began a bomber pilot to ride a figher carrying a bomb because shortage of fighter pilots in the Mariana battle. IJN called bomb fighter Bakusen. The 721st Kokutai started Bakusen suicide on 2 April in the Okinawa Battle. In the results, one hit Hancock on 7 April, 2 hit Kidd and Missouri on 11th Apr, 4 hit Hazelwood, Haggard and Harry F. Bauer on 29 April, 2 hit Bunker Hill on 11 May, one hit Enterprise.
721st Kokutai Bakusen sucide attack in the Okinawa Battle
Gunzo, p189 No77
USS Hancock(CV-19) : 62 men were killed
USS Kidd(DD-661) : 38 men were killed
USS Missouri(BB-63) : superfical damage
USS Hazelwood(DD-531) : 77 men were killed
USS Harry F. Bauer(DM-26)
USS Bunker Hill(CV-17) : 389 men were lost
USS Enterprise(CV-6) : 14 men were killed
Train how to glide
IJN ordered Okamura a commander of 721st Kokutai at Hyakuri-ga-hara on 1st Oct. The 721st Kokutai moved to Kami-no-ike on 7 November. Crews of MXY7 began gliding from a Betty at 3,000m height on 13 November. I think 721st Kokutai judged operational release altitude was not 6,000m but 3,000m. A Betty had to come near an enemy warship 30km at least to attack.
turn on the left 90deg twice
Nagano Osami inspectd the 721st Kokutai on 20 November. Chief of IJNGS, Oikawa Koshirou inspected on 23rd. Commander of GF, Toyoda Soemu and his staffs inspected on 1 December. IJN Minister Yonai Mitsumasa inspected on 3rd. The 3 important leader of IJN admitted airborne sucide wepon and hope taiatari. How did they think the result of the Mariana Battle? If they thought reasonable, how a betty could come near 30km enemy aircraft carriers?
half flap, turn on the left 90deg, speed at 130kt
full flap, speed at 110kt, turn on the left
pull control stic at 1m height, slide on ground
Naito, p39, p41-42, p91, p101, p103-104
The Air Museum Planes of Fame
MXY7 crews' rank and loss
GF planned MXY7 sucide operation. Betty was diffcult to fly with MXY7 in a long range. So aircraft carriers were to ferry MXY7. Aircraft carrier Unryu and Ryuho departed Sasebo and Kure on 17 and 18 November. 721st Koukutai lost 50 MXY7 and 30, when aircraft carrier Shinano and Unryu sank on 28 November 1944 and on 19th Dec. Ryuho arrived at Takao and ferried 58 MXY7. So 721st Koukutai did not advance the Philippines. The Kokutai operated in Kyushu. However, GF planned deploy 40 at Singapore, 30 at Shinchiku, 50 at Okinawa, 27 at Kanoya and Miyazaki till the end of Jan. GF also planned increase at Kanoya and Miyazaki, new deploy at Miyakojima, Ishigakijima, Kami-no-ike, Atsugi, Hachijyojima, Shanghai and Hainan-tou till the end of March.
The table shows MXY7 crews' rank and loss in the 10 operations. 18 Betties flew in the first operation. 3 of 18 were leader aircraft and equipped with radar each. But all the 18 Betty were lost. A betty of the 6th operation only returned base. 78% of all the crews were petty officers. A MXY7 sank USS Mannert L. Abele(DD-733) on 12th Apr. This was the first and the last warship that MXY7 sank.
IJN failed to destroy USN task forces in the Okinawa Battle. The typical example was operation of MXY7 from 21st Mar to 22nd Jun. GF tried trainers as sucide to attack destroyers and transports. GF appointed 2 trainning student of Tokushima Kokutai and Kouchi Kokutai to sucide attack. It meant that IJN would intercept convoys in Kyushu in November 1945. 2 trainers sank USS Drexler and killed 158 men on 28 May.
USS Mannert L. Abele(DD-733)
5th air fleet
The 5th air fleet HQ telegrammed Ugaki's message at 1924 on 15th Aug 1945.
Kako hantoshi ni watari kika kakutai syoushi no funsen nimo kakawarazu kyouteki wo gekisai koukoku-goji no tainin wo hatasukoto atahazarishi ha honsyoku fubin no itasutokoro nari. Honsyoku ha koukoku no mukyu to ten-kokubutai tokkou seishin no kouyou wo kakusin buka-taiin no ouka to chirishi Okinawa ni sinkou koukokubujin no honryou wo hakki kyouteki beikan ni totsunyu gouchin su. Shikika kakubutai ha honsyoku no i wo teishi arayuru kunan wo kokufuku seikyou naru kougun no saiken ni shiryoku｡｡wo tukushi koukoku wo banse mukyu tarashimeyo.
Dai gensui-heika banzai
Syouwa 20 nen 8 gatsu 15 nichi 1924 suisei kijyou yori
The telegram said, 'koukoku' 4 times. Koukoku means Mikado's land. Ugaki thought he should die for Mikado naturally. He said, "Shi ni basyo wo ataetekure." It means I want a stage of my death. His last message would not be impressed at all, if I wrote in romaji. It is full of difficult kanji. Although he referred to Mikado's land, Mikado was unsatisfied with IJN uncooprating the operation with IJA. It was not responsible for the bad operation, because he did it for Mikado. He wanted to be like Kusunoki Masashige, I think.
While examination department of Imperial Japanese Army Air Force did not adopt suicide aircraft Turugi (Ki-115) because of a lot of defects actually, though IJA had ordered production of them which Nakajima designed and made a few hundred.
2 IJA officers did sucide attack with a woman each in Manchuria on 19 August. The aircraft were Ki-36 or Ki-79 trainer. Name of one pair were Tanifuji Testuo and his wife asako. The other were Okura Iwao and Sumiko. 9 aircraft of the last IJN sucide attack was called Shinshu Fumetsu Tokubetsu Kougeki-tai(Sucide Attack).
Ministry of Education
Manga of 'koukoku'
Bunka chou (Agency for Cultural Affairs) recommended a manga titled 'koukoku' no syugo-sha in 2005. Syugo-sha means a guardian. Ministry of Education made a song titled 'koukoku' no mamori in 1912.
Koukoku no Syugo-sha
Bunka-chou suisen sakuhin
Koukoku no tamenari
Agency for Cultural Affairs
After all, no one was resonsible for the immoral weapon and the unhuman operation. People of Japan allowed them to live on peace after the war. And some people incldinig Koizumi Jyunichiro praise the operation. Certainly almost sons of rulers never died by sucide attacks. Most of people praise someone does a sucide for their family, organization, group, and our nation even now. This is our dark crude property for 1,000 years long. Boys and girls are enthusiastic that a hero or heroin of mangas or TV dramas does a sucide for their families or organiztion.
Some princes of Mikados were also driven to sucides for their clans as a result of power imbalance among rulers before modern times.
 Yamamoto, ge p224
 Yamamoto, ge p244
 Yamamoto, ge p244
 Yamamoto, ge p245
 Yamamoto, ge p259
 Yamamoto, ge p262-263
 Yamamoto, ge p266
 Yamamoto, ge p287-288
 Israel kokka
 Russia kokka
 Russia no HP Link decay
 Hinkoku, p214
 Yamamoto, ge, 325
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