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Pluto Operation

Pipeline route
Pluto Operation is the code name of Pipeline. The pipeline was built under the Enlish Channel. Hirota reported the plan.

The planning pipline needed some materials such as lead of 24t, steel tape of 7.5t, steel wire of 15t per mile. The total lenght was 1600km. US made 30% of the pipes.

One route was starting from Dungeness of UK to Wesel across the Rhine. The length of the pipeline was 700km. There were 19 staions. The other was starting Wight to Rouen in France and the length was 230km. There were 15 stations. Flow rate was 1 million gal per day in 1944. There were 3 staions in Anto and also 3 stations in Rouen. UK built the pipeline 10km per hour on land.

Pipe specifications
3in(7.6cm)4.5in(11.4cm)46.5t/mi2 laminars paper tapesilk tape soaked asphalt4 laminar steel tape
hemp fiber, steel wire
2 laminar fiber soaked tar

Pipeline on a coastPipeline on a frame
Gunzo, p98-103 No.91
Operation Pluto

1 million gal is equivalent 4,550 kL. So 1 million gal/day is 52.5 L/s. Area of 3in diameter is 45.6cm2. So average flow speed is 5.8 m/s for 2 routes. The value is incredible high. The total length of 2 routes is 930km. As UK prepared pipes of 1600km length, 670km remained. Did UK build other pipelines to improve small flow rate? Or did oil tankers supply 3 stations of Antwerp directly?

Pipes of 10km length weighs 285t. How could corps of engineers transport the weight and build the pipeline on hills or something for an hour?

Japan imported oil of 244,666kL in 2006, equivalent to 670kL/day. Japan consumed gasoline of 82,208kL in 2007 therefore 225kL daily. Allied armis in Europe theater consumed 20 folds of Japan now, did'nt they? Allied armies transported 19,000t daily on Aug 1944. So the pipelines carried 1/4 weight of all the loads. I suppose US war strategy was limited by gasolie supply mainly.
Keizai sangyo syo tokutei gyosyu sekiyu tou syohi toukei
Kyo no Sekiyu Sangyo
Creveld p366

By the way, How many tankers needed to transport 4,550kL/day across the Atlantic? Size of US wartime T2 tanker was 10,100t. I suppose the tanker could ferried 10,100x1.6=16,160kL. Therefore a T2 tanker had to arrive at UK in 3 or 4 per day. For example, distance between Halifax(44.6N, 63.6W) at Canada and North Strait(56N, 10W) of Scotland and Ireland is 3,900km. If speed of a convoy were 7kt, it needed the voyage of 13 days. Each convoy needed 3 or 4 oil tankers to ferry equivalent to 16,000kL/day at least. The return empty tankers also needed. As for building T2 type tanker, US built 381 during WWII. If Germany thought gasoline transport deep, Germany was not to war against Russia.

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