Desperate War of Japan in the Pacific|
This page contains kanji characters.
| Army soldiers fate aboard merchant ships|
IJA sent troops on cargo ships to defend occupied positions and to intercept US Army in the south front in 1944. IJA had deployed a few troops in the Pacific, and had to pull out troops from China and Manchuria. A site shows how they moved to the south. I am interested in their jikatabi and horses. Jikatabi is a kind of thongs shoes. It has soft rubber sole. JSDF had used it as IJA in 1950s.
But a lot of soldiers were lost under the sea. Because the ships were sunk by US submarines. IJN could not escort only Japanese merchant ships to transfer resources but also ships to ferry army soldiers. The table shows the worst losses of convoys or merchant ships. the losses include the crews of the ships. IJN did not make much effort of ASW like RN and USN. IJN had not concerns to defend merchant ships. GF (Grand Fleet) thought a convoy a bait for USN in the battle of Midway. IJN fleet commanders did not sense that freighters were value much than battleships.
An IJN division needed replenish with 150t of provisions, ammo, gasoline etc in a day. Ammo took up 100-120t of 150t. The 26th Divison of 10 thousand soldiers landed on the Olmoc Bay in Leyte with 130 shells of 38 rifle and provisions for a week on 11 November 1944 because their ships sank or could not land amunitions, guns and trucks because of air raids. The four merchant ships of 泰山丸, 三笠丸, 西豊丸 and 天昭丸 sank at once by USN carriers' aircraft. Although 25-30 Ki-84 came to cover air, 16 Ki-84 were shot down. If the rest of Japanese merchant ships could return to the Manila Bay, most of them were sunk by air raids.
RN used passenger ships to ferry soldiers. USN shipbuilt to ferry soldiers. Japan had 19 passenger ships more than 10,000 GT just before the Pacific War. They were hired by IJN. IJN used them for auxiliary cruisers, auxiliary submarine tenders, hospital ships and auxiliary aircraft carriers. IJA ferried 1,000 soldiers in a cargo ship of 3,000 GT. The soldiers were underdeck stowage. The amenity was terrible, I suppose no ventilation, little lights. The entrance was a hatch in which steep steps was installed. The angle was 70° It looks like a ladder. 1,000 soldiers might rush the ladders, when a torpedo suddenly hit.
Heavy weapon, ammunition, rations and other equipment of the troop were in the bottom stowage. For example, Tajima Maru of Convoy Take-1 in the table held 12 guns and 35 cars. Amatsu Maru held 14 guns, 17 cars and 130 horses. Once a cargo ship sank, the munition was completely lost. The table shows disasters of soldiers. One of bad convoys was in Operation 81 to try ferrying troops in Lae. We call it tragedy of Dampier now. What did IJA and IJN learn in the battle of the Bismarck?
Losses of Japanese Merchant Ships
Tairyou Senbotsu Sendan
|11,005||1944Feb24/Tango Maru/Rasher (SS-269)|
1944Feb25/Ryusei Maru/Rasher (SS-269)
|Hi-71||26th Division||7,546||1944Aug18/Teia Maru (帝亜丸)/Rasher (SS-269)|
1944Aug19/Tamatsu Maru (玉津丸)/Spadefish (SS-411)
1944Aug19/Teiyo Maru (帝洋丸)/Rasher (SS-269)
|Hi-81||23rd Division||5,737||1944Nov15/Akitsu Maru (秋津丸)/Queenfish (SS-393)|
1944Nov18/Mayasan Maru (摩耶山丸)/Picuda (SS-382)
|Jyunyo Maru||Allied POWs||5,649||1944Sep18/Junyo Maru (順陽丸)/HMS Tradewind|
Operation 81||51st Division||4,543||1943Mar02 Kyokusei Maru (旭盛丸)/USAAF (B17)|
1943Mar03 Kenbu Maru(建武丸)/RAAF&USAAF
1943Mar03 Taimei Maru(太明丸)/RAAF&USAAF
1943Mar03 Aiyo Maru(愛洋丸)/RAAF&USAAF
1943Mar03 Teiyo Maru(帝洋丸)/RAAF&USAAF
1943Mar03 Ohigawa Maru(大井川丸)/RAAF&USAAF
1943Mar03 Jinai Maru(神愛丸)/RAAF&USAAF
|3,730||1944Jun29/Toyama Maru (富山丸)/Sturgeon (SS-187)|
|3,274||1944Apr26/#1 Yoshida Maru (第一吉田丸)/Jack (SS-259)|
1944May06 Amatsusan Maru(天津山丸)/Gurnard (SS-254)
1944May06 Tajima Maru(但馬丸)/Gurnard (SS-254)
1944May06 Atei Maru(亜丁丸)/Gurnard (SS-254)
||23rd Army||3,219||1944Jun30/Nikkin Maru (日錦丸)/Tang (SS-306)|
||19th Bridgade||2,900||1944Feb08/Rima Maru (りま丸)/Snook (SS-279)|
||Navy Konkyo troop||2,742||1944Nov17/Aisaka Maru(逢坂山丸)/Peto (SS-265)|
1944Nov18 Edogawa Maru(江戸川丸)/Sunfish (SS-281)
1944Nov18 Seiho Maru(盛祥丸)/Sunfish (SS-281)
1944Nov18 (鎮海丸)/Peto (SS-265)
||19th Division||2,662||1945Jan08/Hisagawa Maru(久川丸)/TF38|
1945Jan08 Anyo Maru(安洋丸)/Barb (SS-220)
1945Jan08 Shinyo Maru(辰洋丸)/Barb (SS-220)
1945Jan08 Manjyu Maru(満珠丸座州)/Queenfish SS-393
1945Jan08 Hikoshima Maru(彦島丸座州)/Barb (SS-220)
1945Jan08 Sanyo Maru(三洋丸座礁)/Barb (SS-220)
||Unknown||2,495||1944Jul31/Yoshino Maru(吉野丸)/Steelhead (SS-280)|
|Awa Maru||Oil engineers|
|2,227||1945Apr01/Awa Maru (阿波丸)/Queenfish (SS-393)|
|Kamakura Maru||Unknown||2,176||1943Apr27/Kamakura Maru (鎌倉丸)/Gadgeon (SS-212)|
|772||14th Army group||2,166||1943Oct08/Dainichi Maru(大日丸)/Gurnard (SS-254)|
1943Oct08 Daian Maru(大安丸)/Gurnard (SS-254)
The list shows detail of the lost ships in the table.
- 1943Mar02 Kyokusei Maru(旭盛丸) 5,493GT CRG/05-02S148-14E USAAF(B17)
- 1943Mar03 Kenbu Maru(建武丸) 953GT CRG/06-53S148-18E RAAF&USAAF
- 1943Mar03 Taimei Maru(太明丸) 2,883GT CRG/06-53S148-18E RAAF&USAAF
- 1943Mar03 Aiyo Maru(愛洋丸) 2,764GT CRG/06-51S148-14E RAAF&USAAF
- 1943Mar03 Teiyo Maru(帝洋丸) 6,801GT CRG/06-56S148-16E RAAF&USAAF
- 1943Mar03 Ohigawa Maru(大井川丸) 6,494GT CRG/06-58S148-16E RAAF&USAAF
- 1943Mar03 Jinai Maru(神愛丸) 3,793GT CRG/06-40S148-10E RAAF&USAAF
- 1943Mar03 Nojima(野島) 5,566t UNS/06-53S148-10E RAAF&USAAF
- 1943Apr27 Kamakura Maru(鎌倉丸) 17,526GT PSS/10-18N121-44E Gadgeon(SS-212)
- 1943Oct08 Dainichi Maru(大日丸) 5,813GT CRG/18-48N119-21E Gurnard(SS-254)
- 1943Oct08 Daian Maru(大安丸) 5,655GT CRG/18-48N119-21E Gurnard(SS-254)
- 1944Feb08 Rima Maru(リま丸) 7,250GT CRG/31-05E127-31E Snook(SS-279)
- 1944Feb24 Tango Maru(丹後丸) 6,200GT CRG/07-46S115-09E Rasher(SS-269)
- 1944Feb25 Ryusei Maru(隆西丸) 4,805GT CRG/07-56S115-14E Rasher(SS-269)
- 1944Feb29 Sakido Maru(崎戸丸) 9,245GT CRG/22-40N131-50E Trout(SS-202)
- 1944Apr26 #1 Yoshida Maru(第一吉田丸) 5,425GT CRG/18-06N119-40E Jack(SS-259)
- 1944May06 Amatsusan Maru(天津山丸) 6,886GT CRG/02-30N124-10E Gurnard(SS-254)
- 1944May06 Tajima Maru(但馬丸) 6,995GT CRG/02-30N124-10E Gurnard(SS-254)
- 1944May06 Atei Maru(亜丁丸) 5,823GT CRG/02-30N124-10E Gurnard(SS-254)
- 1944Jun29 Toyama Maru(富山丸) 7,089GT CRG 27-43N129-04E Sturgeon(SS-187)
- 1944Jun30 Nikkin Maru(日錦丸) 5,705GT CRG/35-05N125-00E Tang(SS-306)
- 1944Jul31 Yoshino Maru(吉野丸) 8,990GT P&C/Steelhead (SS-280)
- 1944Aug18 Teia Maru(帝亜丸) 17,537 PSS/18-09N119-56E Rasher(SS-269)
- 1944Aug19 Tamatsu Maru(玉津丸) 9,590GT LSD/18-49N119-47E Spadefish(SS-411)
- 1944Aug19 Teiyo Maru(帝洋丸) 9,945GT TNK/17-50N119-30E Rasher (SS-269)
- 1944Aug19 Hayanami (速吸) 18,300t OIL/17-34N119-24E Bluefish(SS-222)
- 1944Sep18 Junyo Maru(順陽丸) 5,065GT CRG/02-53S101-11E HMS Tradewind
- 1944Nov17/Aisaka Maru(逢坂山丸) 6,925GT 2AT/33-30N124-30E Peto(SS-265)
- 1944Nov18 Edogawa Maru(江戸川丸) 6,968GT 2A/33-35N124-34E Sunfish(SS-281)
- 1944Nov18 Seiho Maru(盛祥丸) 5.463GT CRG/33-35N124-34E Sunfish(SS-281)
- 1944Nov18 Chinkai Maru(鎮海丸) 2,827GT C/33-39N124-26E Peto(SS-265)
- 1944Nov18 Mayasan Maru(摩耶山丸) 9,433GT LSD/33-21N124-42E Picuda(SS-382)
- 1945Jan08 Hisagawa Maru(久川丸) 6,886GT CRG/23-04N119-51E TF38
- 1945Jan08 Anyo Maru(安洋丸) 9,257GT TNK/24-34N120-37E Barb(SS-220)
- 1945Jan08 Shinyo Maru(辰洋丸) 6,892GT CRG/24-55N120-26E Barb (SS-220)
- 1945Jan08 Manjyu Maru(満珠丸) 6,515GT CRG/大安海岸 Queenfish(SS-393)
- 1945Jan08 Hikoshima Maru(彦島丸) 2,854GT TNK/座州 Barb(SS-220)
- 1945Jan08 Sanyo Maru(三洋丸) 2,854GT TNK/24-37N120-31E Barb(SS-220)
- 1945Apr01 Awa Maru(阿波丸) 11,249GT P&C/25-24N120-07E Queenfish(SS-393)
| Battlefield insectica|
Genda Minoru of IJN was ill in bed of a hospital for 20 days at Rabaul in September 1942. Rabaul is near New Guneia and Solomon Islands. Iwamoto was also ill in bed for a week on 13 December 1943, who was IJN excellent fighter pilot. They were dosed kinine. Aircraft ferried kinine at first. Submarines ferried medicine after losing air and sea control.
50 thousand troops of Japan died of maralia in Luzon.
US troops in desert
Otherwise aircraft of USN from aircraft carriers sprayed DDT on 2nd Apr, Marines landed in Okinawa after 2 days. C-47 sprayed the DDT using Yomitan airfield on 8 April 1945. US studies battlefield insectica in desert now. The photo shows a march in dried ground. The boots interested to me. In WWII, IJA soldiers often wore US Army boots from US soldiers' bodies because IJA offered poor boots for battlefields.
IJA General Staff
IJA General Staff found that US Army would action after stock prices of pharmacy companies were high.
| Domestic court-martial|
Soldiers at court-martial
The table shows personnels executed at the domestic court-martial increased sharply in the Pacific war. IJA and Ministry of Education had trained young men under age 20 since 1920s. IJA made soldiers displine hard for a long time. Staffs of IJHQ and domestic armies held a meeting about law and order on 25th Jul 1945. 1st General Army reported that 60% of illegal action was AWOL and defection of the soldiers. 2nd General Army reported that food shortage was cause of defection. Air General Army reported bad crimes of sucide attack crews. Kempeitai reported a lot of robbery and sex crimes. Staffs of IJAHQ had to admit they did not have regular soldiers no more in Japan main land.
While draft and ration of government enforcement brought bribery of 'Kaoyaku' among commons community. Kiyosawa Kiyoshi wrote deterion of public moral in his diary in 1943. He died at St. Luke's Hospital in Tokyo.
Gunzo, p33-49, no62
First General Army
| Kill ratio|
Ratio of soldiers per population
US had planned that ground force would land along Kyushu. The table shows loss ratios of allied ground forces and kill ratios in some locations. Eniwetok and Kwajalein were selected as ferry points, because their defend positions seemed to be weak. IJA could built defense positions of Iwojima better than Saipan, so kill ratio of US was small.
IJA could kill maximum 10% of US Army at small islands of Iwojima and Palau. IJA had to change deployment of troops in Phillipines and Okinawa, but the troops could not carry ammunition and ration well because of poor logisitics. Comparing with kill ration of Afghan and the Pacific, IJA was poor as primitive troops. It shows that IJA commanders had not ability or knowledge to counter US Army. IJA bureaucrats were busy with governing Japanese people, and did not study US Army at all. If IJA studied the US seriouly, IJA generals would not want to begin the Pacific War. After the Okinawa Battle, IJA prepared for Ketsu operation in Kyushu. But Mikado did not dreame of such operation on desk and commanded to surrender. IJA did not have ability to move troops in battle. The table of ratio of soldiers per population in Russia, Germany, US and Japan shows that Japan was only 6%. Japan was not industry state as Russia. Japanese soldiers had to fight against the modernized army with Minatogawa spirit.
Loss ratio and kill ratio of Allied ground force
|Enemy loss||Kill ratio|
|Nimitz||Okinawa||1945 Mar18- Jun23||548000||12520
|Petraeus, McKiernan||Afghan||2001 Oct7- ||51,350||1,014
David D. McKiernan
Mauro del Vecchio
Battle of Okinawa
| War criminal|
Japanese commons had no interest to judge their crimminals against humanism. We were simply in hunger. Without punishment, such crimminals against humanity would bring out again. Supreme Court of Japan usually does not judge crimes of government. Government absolutely makes no errors, so unneccessary for punishment. This is the rule since Meiji Restoration. A big earthquake in Tokyo and tight depression will cause the dark age again under corruption of democracy. Political situation of Japan looks like 1920s or WWI. In those days, Japan's diplomatic issue was China. This time will be US. Once Japan stumbled on China, this time US. Nuke possison powers will use them for their securities and cost performance. Japan knows the merciless force. Japan's economy is dependent with US foods and China markets completely. How will poor Japan do without money?|
War Criminal Committiee
Allied nations established the committiee in 1943. Members were
China, India, US, Australlia, UK, New Zealand, Netherlands, France, Belguim, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, South Africa and Yugoslavia.
Trial places of far east
(B) Conventional War Crimes, (C) Crimes against Humanity
Trial Netherland(Ambon, Kupan, Tanjon・Penang, Batavia, Barikkuppan, Banjarumashin, Hollandia, Bontianakku, Makasar, Medan, Menado, Morotai)
Trial China(漢口, Canton, 済南, 徐州, Shanghai, 瀋陽, 太原, Taipei, Nanking, Beijing)
Trial Australlia(Ambon・Morotai, Wewak, Port Darwin, Manus, Rabaul, Singapore, Honkong, Rabuan)
Trial UK(Arorusuta, Kuala Lumpur, Jesselton, Johorubaru, Singapore, Taiping, Burma, Penan, Hongkong)
Trial US(Guam, Kuezerin, Shanghai, Manila, Yokohama)
This is one case. USN asked how to treat bailed out airmen, when troops of Chichijima surrendered. Chichijima locates in the north of Iwojima. A commander of troops ordered to kill a POW and cook the flesh, and high ranked officers ate them drinking sake if airmen were caught. They were accused of murder. According to an IJA officer of Chichijima from Wakayama, he says in Japanese, the food supplies was better than main land. Another IJN officer says in Japanese, 'Troops kept cows and hens on July 1945 in Chichijima. There was only a tomb of an enemy soldier in the island.
This is another case. IJA ordered to kill 8 POWs of a B-29 crew who were anatomy alive in Kyushu Imperial
University. A medical professor and other doctors including 5 officers of IJA ate the flesh of POWs.
| POW in Iraq and Philippines|
I was shocked to see images of a prison in Iraq. When and why US Army lost humanity? US Army treated Japanese POWs properly in WWII. Yamamoto wrote that US Army soldiers of war front piled stakes in heavy rain for Japanese POWs not to be wet in Philippines. But new soldiers were bad who did not experience combats after the experienced vetran soldiers come home in Christmas.
 Nimitz, p67
 Chihaya, ge p164
 Ohuchi, p266
 丹後丸 隆西丸
 Oui, p159
 Genda, p234
 Genda Minoru
 Iwamoto, p176
 Iwamoto Tetsuzo
 DOA, p100
 Nature, p18 3Jul2008
 Gunzo, p41, no62
 Abu Ghraib
 Ouoka, p377
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